What is tragedy in drama according to Aristotle?

What is tragedy in drama according to Aristotle?

literary media has been discussed since ancient times.  However, drama can be mainly divided into five categories - tragedy, comedy, melodrama, tragicomedy and farce. Of these, tragedy is given the highest seat; Sometimes drama has even come to mean tragedy. First of all it is necessary to gain a general understanding of tragedy. Tragedy: From the performance performed on the occasion of the sacrifice of goats, sheep, etc. to the gods. 

What is tragedy in drama according to Aristotle?


Tragedy is born. is considered to be But at the root of the tragedy drama is the conflict of the individual-soul-angry intense pain and lamentation. Aristotle's definition of tragedy is particularly relevant in literary criticism today. S, H, Butcher translated Aristotle says in his 'Poetics' (350 BC) : 

Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play, in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions.

Tragedy is the religion of the hero or heroine. Juice is key here. The religion of tragedy is a special kind of humor under the shelter of a complex and serious event that will stir our feelings in an unprecedented atmosphere. It will be bio-unitary i.e., it will have a single unbroken shape. Also, its language will have a musical quality. Although double story has a special role in it, structurally it must have natic features. Above all, it will inspire pity and fear on the one hand; 

On the other hand, it will awaken a kind of tranquility. Because, in the drama, the strong and glorious position of the hero in spite of the hundred calamities will give the audience a wonderful pleasure. - At the same time the calamity which the spectator sees will comfort him by saying that, At least it didn't happen in the viewer's own life.

 In this - the audience's emotions or special instincts will be refined. In ancient Greek tragedy 'fate' has a special role. How helpless man is before God, man in God's distress. How to appear to be the most unfortunate and live to suffer the agony of death = is the art form of Greek tragedy in its various forms. This destiny engulfs him as a punishment for any crime committed by a person in the past, knowingly or unknowingly. 


What are Aristotle's 6 elements of tragedy?

who is called nemesis in Greek tragedy. That is, man can never escape nemesis – this belief is the motto of Greek tragedy. In general, murder, death, misfortune, error. It is in these elements that ancient tragedy gained its merit. 

however, It denies the individuality and freedom of human beings. Coming out of this trend, the English dramatist Shakespeare established a different ideal of tragedy, and this ideal has been used to shelter a variety of dramatic structures to this day. Shakespeare's heroes and heroines. Often gives rise to an error of judgment in their actions. And in the end that is what makes them suffer extreme death. 

That is, man himself, not the gods, is the cause of man's misfortune this universal truth the audience realizes time and again through Shakespearean tragedies. But whatever the type of tragedy, the sufferings of the hero or heroine are equally observed. And through this tragedy creates horror-mixed pity. 

Sophocles' 'Antigene', 'Oedipus', 'Agamemnon' by Aeschylus, Shakespeare's 'Hamlet', 'Macbeth' etc. are world famous tragedies. Comedy: Among other genres, comedy ends in joy or reconciliation. It shelters various aspects of life. Its merit lies in humor and engaging and heartwarming dialogue.


Generally comedy portray humorous of life

Comedy does not adopt such a strategy as in tragedies, where the hero or a character tries to reveal his mental, perceptual world by going deep into his heart, or presenting the hero's self-questioning in a dialectic level. This is absolutely no exception. It is not, but it never ends up harboring a single character like tragedy. 

The conflicts and complications of the play are done in cooperation with all the characters. And through this, the slant of intelligence and thoughtfulness is revealed in the play. Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew', 'Merchant of Venice', ' Notable comedy dramas such as Comedy of. Melodrama: It can also be called hyperdrama. In melodrama, emotion predominates. This is also a special drama series. 

However, it does not convey any extreme aesthetics like tragedy. Sometimes the natika conflict remains ambiguous but with emotional intensity this class of drama seeks to move the heart of the audience. Often weak tragedies degenerate into melodramas. Tragic-comedy: It involves various humors to lighten the serious atmosphere of tragedy.

There is no very precise definition or explanation about its nature and trends. However, many playwrights use the concept of tragicomedy as dramatic relief in a small scale in tragedy dramas. Farce: Comedy differs from melodrama or tragicomedy on several criteria. 


What are the 3 unities of Poetics?

These types of satirical and satirical dramas are written with the purpose of showing the faults and inconsistencies of society or individuals. Its subject is something deep. Nor is the fundamental problem chosen; Nor is he served with that degree of importance. Vashti Or images of collective error, inconsistency and weakness are adopted as the subject and medium of farce. 

The comic actions of the characters in the play, the silliness and witty dialogues are the main features of this class of works. In this context, the names of some notable dramas of world drama can be recalled: Prometheus of Aeschylus.

 Bound', Sophocles' 'The King Oedipus', Bhavabhuti's Dream Vasavadatta, Kalidasa's 'Abhijnanshakuntalam', Shakespeare's 

'Hamlet', Goethe's 'Faust', Ibsen's 'The Doll's House', Strindberg's 'The Dream Play', George Bernard Shaw's 'Man and Superman', Chekhov's 'The Cherry Orchard', Rabindranath Tagore's 'Raktakarbi', Maxim Gerki's 'The Lair Depth', Brett's 'Mother Courage' etc. Nan Sikandar Abu Zafar was born in 1918 in Tentulia village of Tala upazila of Satkhira district. Basically one. 

Even though he was a poet, he had a comfortable walk in various fields of literature. He was always at the forefront of progressive cultural movements. Samakal, a monthly literary magazine published for a long time under his editorship, became Tarutva.

Literary meeting place; A strong platform of intellectual protest and resistance against Pakistani misrule. The magazine was banned several times and its published issues were confiscated for voicing protests against the Pakistani military regime. 

Sikandar Abu Jafar's educational career began at Tala BD English High School in the then Khulna (now Satkhira). After completing his studies there, he studied at Surendranath College (earlier Ripon College) in Calcutta.

After completing his education, he engaged in various contemplative professions from 1941 onwards. After partition he moved to East Bengal and served as staff artist of Radio Pakistan till 1953. He was primarily a journalist. 

He also had the experience of working in the newspaper 'Navyug' edited by Kazi Nazrul Islam. Weekly expeditions from Calcutta during the Liberation War' He was responsible for editing and publishing the magazine. he Sikandar Abu Zafar, the author of famous works like 'Our struggle will continue', 

Bangla Chalhe' is also a playwright. was especially appreciated. Apart from 'Sirajuddaula', his other famous plays include 'Makarsa'. (1960), “Shakunta Upakhyan” (1962) and Mahakabi Alaol” (1966) are particularly noteworthy. 


What are the three main elements that Aristotle thought tragedy needed to have?

He was awarded the Bangla Academy Award in 1966 in recognition of his acting. Apart from poetry and drama, he has written many creative works including novels and translations. He died on 5th August 1975 in Dhaka. Definition, Characteristics and Variations of Drama. Drama is a special genre of literary works. In Eastern drama, it is called skhankavya. has been The word 'drama' comes from the Greek language and means 'action'.

 To show something. Bangla Natak', 'Natya', 'Nat', 'Nati' etc. words are also derived from the word 'Natu' which means 'to move'. That is, there is a kind of dynamism within the play that builds on a three-dimensional art structure.

It is necessary to say that drama in the present time. Although the most popular medium of performance is television, the stage is the real and proper performance-place of drama. So drama. In this discussion of the subject only stage-based theatrical features will be considered. 

In fact, drama involves a collective artistic effort. In this, the Kushilabs reached the stage in the presence of the audience and presented the reflection of one or more special events of dynamic human life through acting. In general, the four themes in the play. What is taken into consideration is; plot, characters, 

Dialogue and perspective. An art-dense story based around a specific context tries to be presented through the dialogues of the central character and various supporting characters. in the play Dance-songs, background music, sound composition, 

lighting equipment, stage techniques etc. can be associated with this. However, this is just a general idea about drama. Various changes have taken place through this industry which is more than two thousand years old. 


Aristotle Shakespeareunity time

How exposition, rising action, climactic conflict are prerequisites for drama writing. (climax), 

The play will progress from beginning to end step by step through falling action and conclusion - that too was specially structured. But people's lives have changed with time. Since drama is the closest reflection of life, it has undergone many changes despite keeping the main features of this genre intact.

In modern times, many dramas do not have any circle, and many successful ones have been written with only one character. drama; Even without dialogue, drama-making is not impossible. 

However, 

only if a dramatist can properly master the above-mentioned structural features, then it is possible to achieve a variety of levels in the organization of the play. loses its authority and consequently the artistic extraction of literature is disrupted. In other words, 

like Rabindranath, he limited history only to facts and immersed it in the creative imagination of the author, because, Rewriting history is not the purpose of literature. However, there is no reason to conclude from Rabindranath's comment that the display of literary loyalty to history is unnecessary. 

The bottom line is that the writer will write a non-historical literature with confidence in the original truth in history; However, the author will not have any responsibility to follow the history mechanically.


What are the elements of Aristotle's drama?

It would not be logical to claim that this ideal has always been followed in writing Bengali historical plays. That's it. It is undeniable that the attempt to compose drama based on history is centuries old. In most of these dramas, the subject of 5 history is the history of kings and kings. An emperor or a nawab or a general or someone. 

A feudal hero, and sometimes even a feudal woman, played the central role in these plays. That is, in such plays. The central character is always a representative of the feudal class; Where as the will of the feudal lord or the king is the will of the people = any kind of democratic rights consciousness is not the main motivation in this case. And in general, to glorify the central character is to glorify the feudal system itself. But the whole of India gradually came out of the feudal system.

It has begun to struggle with the colonial powers and is gradually advancing towards a democratic society when this backward feudalism threatens to come into conflict with the trend of social change. 

Again, it is also true that when the dramatists looked for a character suitable for a great work of art from the siege of the long English rule, it was these feudal heroes who appeared in front of them. While not walking against the current of the society, while composing dramas about these mentioned aspects, the main dramatists of Bengali literature have sometimes kept their focus on history as a context. 

did human psychology, Towards love, life experiences etc., again recasting the character in a patriotic framework in a contemporary context while keeping the historical formula of the aspiring feudal hero intact; Even combining these two is not impossible. Notable examples of the first described technique are Michael Madhusudan Dutt's 'Krishna Kumari' or Dwijendralal Roy's 'Sajahan'; The most celebrated example of the second technique is Sirajuddaula'. The end of Bengal. 

No matter how much the independent Nawab was a representative of the feudal class, the creative wisdom of the Bengali dramatists has made him a freedom fighter. Traditional icon of man. In this context, it should be said that several dramas have been written in Bengali language about the historical character Sirajuddaula. 


Among authors of these dramas

 Girishchandra Ghesh is particularly noteworthy. Sachin Sengupta and Sikandar Abu Zafar. Girishchandra Ghesh says in the introduction of his play: 'The character of Siraj has been portrayed in a distorted color in foreign history. Eminent Historian Biharilal Government Mr. Akshay Kumar Maitreya, 

Mr. Nikhil Nath Roy, Mr. Scholars like Kaliprasanna Banerjee and other literate Sudhis with extraordinary diligence refuted foreign history and took care to portray the political and Prajavatsal Siraj. I am indebted to all those writers.' 

On the other hand, Sachin Sengupta wrote in the preface to his play 'Sirajuddaula': Itihasa Khonpanji. Drama is not that. Historical people are eventful. Multiple dramas can be composed based on only one incident of life. For this reason, the incident is the dramatist's.

Content In the political situation in which Siraj was hurt and endangered, Many men in many countries have faced similar situations. Some have been able to overcome it and establish independence, some have not. Here comes the talk of his nature, his character traits. 

Therein lies the work of drama. I wanted to analyze this (Siraj) character and show that it is not possible for a generous person like Siraj, for a bright, fearless, honest young man like him to break the conspiracies of miscreants. 

If he had matured in age, if he had been adept at politics, then he might have been small as a person but as a ruler he could have been big. Siraj's helplessness, Siraj's genius, Siraj's kindness in his heart pushed him to the end of his life. Neither his disability nor his incompetence. Most Bengali characters are like this. Siraj was a pure Bengali. So his defeat was the defeat of Bengal. With his fall, Bengal also fell.


What is the third most important element of tragedy?

The purpose and context of Sikandar Abu Jafar's plays are completely different from the two aforementioned playwrights. In this context, the playwright's own opinion is memorable: 

'I have tried to discover Sirajuddaula as a source of tradition and inspiration in the urge of new values, avoiding the confusion of history and from a new perspective. I have recreated the biopic of Sirajuddaula, strictly following the real history and following it at every step. 

In terms of religion and morals. Sirajuddaula's genuine faith, his firmness of character and the human virtues that the colonial conspirators and their self-interested stalwarts have built up a mountain of lies to suppress are essentially idealistic and humane in this play. 

I want to highlight the qualities. In fact, the people of East Bengal at the time Sikandar was writing the play. Becoming increasingly vocal and pro-independence against the Pakistani occupiers. As a result, Siraj of his play captures the liberating voice of the people. Sikandar Abu Zafar in this play Sirajuddaula by following the direction of history.


by Sabbir- Conefece


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