establish himself as a Bengali national hero with a strong character. In addition to donating the drama, a film was made in Dhaka in the sixties about this tragic historical story of Sirajuddaula. The famous actor Anayer Haasen gained immense popularity by playing Sirajuddaula-character in this film. Besides, many Jatrapalas have been written and staged in Bangladesh with this historical character. Sirajuddaula
Written by Sikandar Abu Jafar, this play ends with a tragic and extremely painful ending. Tragedy-like poignancy exists in this play. The personality and wisdom of Siraj, the central character of the play, likewise touched the artistic quality of the tragedy.
The dramatist elevates Siraj to an extraordinary height as a tragic hero by remaining steadfast in his goal even as he moves towards an inevitable and dire end. again It is also true that Siraj's death also ends his suffering – which somewhat dampens the mood of tragedy.
However, it is necessary to say that the dramatist was not motivated to write a play by fully following the grammar of Greek or Shakespearean tragedies, perhaps by fully realizing the impact of the movement that was being observed in the socio-political-culture of Bangladesh at the time of writing the play.
because, The composition of the play is mainly about the desire for freedom. It's time for Bengalis to wake up again. Time to be fueled by endless optimism. Failure in this context may come with grace but it can by no means end in endless agony.
Tragedy, however, is ultimately the hero's endless suffering. As drama is a reflection of time and society, Sikandar Abu Jafar could not help but compare it to the times. To do otherwise is at a greater industrial risk.
used to read The playwright realized that fatalism was not the main theme of Greek tragedy at the time. Again, he could not find any reasonable reason to bind an innocent Bengali in the framework of nemesis. Compared to that, he was much more interested in tragedies written by Shakespeare. because, In this class of tragedies, any slippage or small mistake of the hero is ultimately held responsible for his ultimate fate.
Shakespearean tragedy hero in Siraj
He wants to see the error of judgment of the . But like Shakespeare. "Khede." Or the heroes of 'Hamlet' burn in the fire of unbearable pain and remorse, no way out of it. | Sikandar had no interest in building Siraj in such a way that they did not remain equal. Then what message would he convey to the Bengalis that there is no hope, no hope! He did not have such a conviction. Rather, he wanted to say,
Perceived but eternally confident in generosity and humanity, Siraj could never be extremely ruthless and harsh against the conspirators. The dramatist also wants to say, Siraj has fought, defeated the war and seemingly fled but wanted to fight again.
In the end, he was imprisoned and died. But still this tune continues to resonate as the central theme of Sikandar's plays – 'The people's struggle will continue'. Siraj could not, this time the Bengalis can. The optimism that is the main force of the play is not expected to follow the canonical structure of tragedy meticulously in constructing the outcome of the play.
That is, rather than being a complete tragedy, the underlying motivation for the success of this play is the symptom of tragedy. However, the dramatist has to be careful in rendering Karunaras so that the play does not turn into melodrama or over drama. For, if compassion is not properly concentrated, it may burden the play with over-emotion; Which is in no way desired by Sikandar. was not He has very consciously given the play a painfully tragic ending without transgressing the boundaries of art. To understand the matter, it is necessary to discuss the context of the drama and its art form.
The role of western especially English literature in the development of modern Bengali drama is special. In the 19th century, under the influence of Western education, the new sense of life that touched the educated Bengalis and the renaissance that began, one of its manifestations in the field of Bengali literature was the farce of that time; The real result of which is Bengali drama.
Modern Bengali drama was born as a continuation of the development of Bengali drama stage in a conflict-ridden environment of the 19th century. According to the information available so far, the first Bengali play was performed on 27th November 1795. Herasim Lebedev, with the help of his language-teacher Gelkanath Das, Western version of the drama The Disguise. Dhachar staged.
In 1831 AD Hindu theater and in 1835 in Shyambazar Navin Chandra Bose's own house can also be seen the use of Biliti type of stage. However, in January 1857, Nandakumar Roy's Abhijanan Shakuntala was performed as the first Bengali play instead of the translated play. Among the dramas of this stage, Ramnarayan Tarkaratna's 'Kulinkulsarvaswa' performed in Ramjoy Basak's house in 1857 is also worth noting.
An unprecedented event in the history of Bengali drama took place in the theater set up in the Belgachia Bagan house of Raja Ishwar Chandra Singh and Raja Pratap Chandra Singh of Paikpara. In 1858, Michael Madhusudan Dutta, who had just returned from Madras, came to see the play 'Ratnavali'.
He was greatly distressed and as a result Bengali literature got the first meaningful Bengali drama from his hands. Hardworking. Under Madhusudan's genius, there was a revolutionary change in the subject, dialogue, style, staging etc. of Bengali drama. This style of drama, which has become a reflection of the reawakened Bengalis, is known as 'Nab Natak'.
Drama Madhusudan Dinbandhu tasteful and aesthetic
In this continuation, dramatists like Girishchandra Ghesh, Dwijendralal Roy appeared in the arena of Bengali drama; Bengali theater started to develop. Then Rabindranath Tagore added world-class independence to Bengali drama by experimenting with his own theory and style.
The two world wars, which had an indelible influence on the literature of the 20th century, enriched the drama of that time with new ideas and forms. Along with this, the Russian Revolution, the anti-British revolutionary activities throughout India, the spread of Marxism worldwide, the 1943 revolution, partition, class struggle consciousness,
Bengali dramas such as Akaksha started the genre of Kananutya. Playwrights like Bijan Bhattacharya, Utpal Dutta and others were determined to reach the masses with this new style of drama. Around this time, the establishment of Pakistan, the exploitation and discrimination of the common people of East Bengal, inspired the dramatists of this region with the spirit of Kananatha.
Also, the background of one movement after another in East Bengal created a favorable environment for the creation of Bangladesh's own theater style even before independence. Some of the notable Bengali dramas are as follows: 'Kulinkulsarvaswa' by Ramnarayan Tarkaratna,
'Krishna Kumari' by Madhusudan Dutta, 'Bur Shaliker Gharke Ron', 'Neeldarpan' by Deenbandhu Mitra, 'Sadhbar Ekadashi', 'Zamidar-Darpan' by Mir Musharraf Hossain, Prafulla by Girishchandra Ghesh. , Rabindranath Tagore's 'Bisarjan', Dwijendralal Roy's 'Sajahan', Bijan Bhattacharya's 'Nabanna', Tulsi Lahiri's Cherataar', Uppal Dutt's 'Tin Talair' etc.
Carrying this rich legacy of Bengali drama, Bangladesh also gradually developed its own drama genre. In this context, some notable plays of Bangladesh can be recalled; For example: Nurul Memon's 'Nemesis', Syed Waliullah's Bahipir', Munir Chowdhury's 'Chithi', Anis Chowdhury's 'Manchitra', Syed Ahmed's 'Milestone', 'Kalbela',
Mumtaz Uddin Ahmed's 'Raja Anusvarar Pala', 'Ki Chah Shankhchil', Syed Shamsul Haque's Footsteps', 'Nooruddin's Life', Zia Haider's 'Shubra Sundar Kalyani Anand', 'Elebele', Abdullah Al Mamun's 'Subchan'. Nirbasne', 'Akhan Dushamam', 'Meraj Fakir's Mother', Mamunur Rashid's 'Ora Kadam Ali', 'Guinea Pig', Salim Al Din's 'Kittankhaela', 'Keramatmangal', MM Selayman's 'Talpatar Sepai', 'Ingit' etc.
Historical Drama: Context 'Sirajuddaula
The truth of history and the truth of literature do not always follow the same path. Nevertheless, the practice of creating literature based on history is ancient. Rabindranath Tagore in his essay
"Historicism in Literature" has expressed his opinion in favor of avoiding the 'many events' of history and various accessories in literature. He thinks that literature has remained passive without participating in the war.
Thus, in an unjust war, Bengal became subject to the British. The treacherous capitalists and generals gave up the independence of Bengal in order to save individual and clan heritage. In this defeat of Siraj, he had no shortage of military power; The only thing that was lacking was the honesty and sincerity of the relatives. This defeat was purely political and economic.
Due to the victory in the battle of Palashi, the British were able to implement the decree given by the emperor of Delhi, Farrukh Shir. This is how the English monopolized the politics and economy of Bengal. Able to establish. In the plot structure of the play, the play is composed of twelve scenes in four acts. Siraj himself is present in eight of these scenes.
drama revolved Centered on Siraj
The story of the play is presented through the dialogues of Siraj and other characters. The story of the play unfolds with war. Siraj's forces attacked Calcutta and drove out the British. But Siraj is not relieved; Various palace conspiracies are going on to remove him from the throne.
Along with this, the story of the play has progressed. In the web of conspiracies that gradually spread, his closest relatives were associated with the British, Various amatyas including his commander-in-chief. The dramatist creates such a situation that the dramatic conflict carries. The multidimensional crisis of Siraj is going on.
On the one hand, the independence of Bengal must be maintained, on the other hand, Siraj cannot abandon the conspirators who are plagued by evil. The dramatist takes the play to its climax through the dramatic conflict created around this issue. He wants to show that Siraj understands everything. But his human qualities prevent him from taking drastic measures.
Such a complex situation creates. The dramatist has again brought back the atmosphere of war. This time the conspiracy was successful; Siraj's trusted military officers died one after another; Siraj, too, eventually had to leave the battlefield – not out of an urge to save his life, but to return to the capital and regain his strength to make a last-ditch effort to maintain independence.
Drama has progressed in the direction of Granthimochan
In the end Siraj's resolution was not realized. Siraj is captured, imprisoned and killed in the final scene by Kritghna Mohammadi Beg. The play ends with an immense pain in the heart of the reader. In the play, Sikandar tried to trace history back. He is an important event recorded in history.
Did not drop or change. However, there are some historical data inconsistencies in the use of dates at the beginning of a number. Siraj's character development is sometimes hampered by the emphasis on history. The amount of time needed to develop the Natic conflict, in particular.
lacks the kind of artistic care required to flesh out Siraj's character-psychology. The suffering of the individual-Siraj under the pressure of historical events, Moaning can be heard in the drama in a very low tone.
Still, it is undeniable that he was able to discover a generous-hearted, free-spirited Nawab with supreme human qualities from the dreary data of history. Characterization technique and central character-portrayal One or more characters whose presence can be observed in a play, the playwright is active behind their transformation.
Characterization techniques. From this point of view, it is evident that the creation of a national hero who is upset by the conspiracy. was the playwright's central characterization technique. It is worth noting that if the disaster of the hero is to be shown, it is the opposite of the hero.
Characters also need to be created with equal artistic skill. If not, It glorifies the disaster of the hero. not possible This issue has not been consistently pursued in the drama. About forty characters have come together in the play. But none of the characters other than Siraj is developed with dramatic qualities. Each of these characters.