What is political and economic culture?

What is political and economic culture?

The independent aspect of culture may be technological, economic, political, ideological or any other aspect. According to Agban, the independent aspect of culture is dependent. leaves the side behind and that dependent side then has to act to adjust. He exemplifies that, Metro is independent culture and road is dependent culture. Number of vehicles. As a result of the increase, the road becomes congested and widening of the road becomes necessary to remove this anomaly. In the same way religion with science, family with education, education with industrialization,

What is political and economic culture?

village with urbanization have to be adjusted. When this incompatibility of one part of the culture with the other creates stress in one part, it is called cultural gap. There are several ways to identify the cultural gap that exists in society. Namely, finding two parts of culture; b. To uncover the mechanism of adjustment between those two parts; (c) to reveal the extent to which one of those two parts has changed at a greater rate; d, As a result of more than one percent of those two parts changing, the previous harmony between the two parts has changed. Uncovering that inconsistencies have occurred. Ogburn discusses the impact of technological change on culture in society. According to him, modern man. One of the problems is to adapt our thoughts and behavior with technology and mechanical civilization. he said Modern states have become very close to each other due to the improvement of communication systems and one country to another. Being dependent on the country for various tasks. In such a situation, the old principles of international relations are failing to meet modern needs. Similarly, the way of working in factories has changed but the labor laws are not coming. change Thus many examples of cultural gaps can be given. Since material culture changes faster than non-material culture, it is the lagging material culture that has to adapt to maintain the balance of society. If the speed of this adaptation is slow, various problems are created in the society. In the light of Agrarian theory, the nature of cultural gap in Bangladesh is discussed below- Agriculture: Bangladesh is a major agricultural country. About 80 percent of the people of this country are directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture. A silent revolution has been achieved in the agricultural sector of Bangladesh. Already, many advanced technologies are applied in agriculture. For example, power tillers, irrigation machines, threshing machines, threshing machines, harvesting machines etc. But due to the lack of technical knowledge and material culture, the common farmers of the country are lagging behind in the use of these advanced technologies. As a result Cultural gap is created and socio-economic development of the country is hindered. Education: Education is the backbone of the nation. In the world, those castes or groups are advanced who are more advanced in education. The developed world today has made great progress in the field of education. Due to advanced materials in those countries, the method of taking education has become much easier. On the other hand, although there are advanced materials in Bangladesh, there is no knowledge or manpower to use them. As a result imparting education through advanced education system is not possible. As a result, a kind of cultural gap is created. Information technology: The current era is the era of information technology. Information technology is the technique of exchanging information. 

What are the three types of political cultures?

It is basically a type of communication system based on information technology. Information technology has made amazing progress. With the help of computer, digital telephone and Sarmarine cable. Mobile Phone, Laptop, Thanks to the internet, all the civil societies of the world have come closer to each other today. However, Bangladesh is far behind in the race of technological progress. Currently, 90 percent of the country does not have a computer at home and more than 75 percent of citizens do not know how to use a computer. However, the widespread use of computers in almost all sectors of society is noticeable. As a result, there is a big gap between material and immaterial culture, which is creating obstacles in the way of development. Halkhata (Halkhata): Halkhata ceremony is a universal behavioral ritual of Pahela Boishakh. Halkhata is the new account that is opened in the new year with the accurate calculation of debts of the whole year. And its arrival on the way of Pahela Baisakh. With Halkhata, the business side seems to be more, the joyous festival is not so much. It is a formal initiative to open new books of businessmen to keep accounts of New Bengali year properly. In this, their work is transaction of business, balance-due; Accounting of everything is arranged in usul-adya. Fair; Fairs are an important aspect of Bengali culture. Religious and worldly rituals are Bangladesh. Alik is the main source of fairs. The integrated intimate identity of people's life and people's culture is effectively expressed in the match. 

types of fairs are held in Bangladesh

 which are considered as cultural elements. A glimpse of the image of this fair can be found from a quote by Rabindranath. He said, “Our country is predominantly rural, the rural is sometimes where you feel the blood of the outside world circulating inside your home. When Utma becomes noble, fair is his main means. It is this fair that invites outsiders into our country. In this festival, the village forgets all your narrowness, this is the main occasion to open its heart and give and receive. For example, when rains fill reservoirs with water from the sky, Palagans etc. are still heard in every village of Bengal. Apart from this, the practice of Rabindra Sangeet, Nazrul Geeti, Lalon Geeti songs can be seen in the city life. However, lately modern bands, Hindi movies, western music have become one of the means of entertainment for the younger generation. Sports; The importance of sports in building the cultural heritage of national life is immense'. Since ancient times, the villages of Bengal were full of various games. Among them are football, Hadudu, Dariyabanda, Bouchi, Kanamachi, boating, horse racing etc. Through these games the identity of the Bengali national character, culture and tradition emerges perfectly. Sports are not seen much in city life due to lack of field. Generally football, cricket, hockey, carrom etc. are the main sports of the city. Finally, The people of rural and urban society of Bangladesh have developed a modern and traditional way of life through the practice of their own culture. Impact of Culture on Social life of Bangladesh Culture is one of the factors that affect social life. To discuss the impact of cultural elements on social life, first of all it is necessary to know about culture. Culture suffix is ​​different people. Used in different senses.

 Literary culture refers to people's thoughts, hopes, desires, imaginations,

 Anthropologists on the other hand consider any innovation as culture. Sociologists see culture as a way of life. That is, everything that a person does in his life is considered as culture. In this context, the opinion of Robert M, McIver (R. M, Maclver) is valid. In his words, 'Our culture is what we are.' 17 That is, what we are is our culture. British anthropologist E. gave the most popular definition of culture. B. Taylor (EB Tylor) in his book Primitive Culture. According to him, "Culture is the complex combination of manners, customs, knowledge, arts, principles, laws, etc. acquired by people as members of society." The influence of cultural elements on social life is very important. It is said that people are prisoners of culture. That is, culture affects people directly or indirectly in different ways. Western sociologists mainly mean economic factors by cultural factors. Materials that have monetary value are economic materials. Since the economic factor is associated with the production system, it is identified as 'production strategy'. 

Western sociologists also refer to it as 'cultural elements'

In fact, culture is the people's social policy, economy, Directly or indirectly affects politics, religion, lifestyle. remains Below are the effects of culture in the social life of Bangladesh: Social relation; The influence of cultural factors in determining social relations is undeniable. Production techniques or cultural elements have been active in the creation of social relations through the ages in social life. That is why the German philosopher Karl Marx mentioned the cultural element in the worker-owner relationship. In terms of social development, this element is active and influences the social structure. Hence the influence of cultural factors is very effective in determining social relations. For example, acquaintances play an important role in determining social relations in the rural society of Bangladesh, but acquaintances do not play such a role in urban society. Habit and choice: Cultural factors also play an effective role in evoking and directing people's habits and tastes. Habits and tastes are usually inherited from birth. These habits and tastes later influence the life of the person. Family members have habits and tastes. Takes away from family. In this case, cultural elements play a key role. For example, the habits and tastes of a farmer's family are adopted by his family members. Again the sons and daughters of industrialists get their habits and tastes from the family. 

These things are determined by cultural factors. Economic system (Economic system):

 The influence of cultural elements on the financial system of social life is immense. When social stability is created in the society through the introduction of agriculture, economic prosperity comes to the people. Again, when the industrial society came, people became active in the development of the financial system under the influence of private ownership. Cultural factors have played an active role as the main reason for this. That is, the development and speed of the financial system is directly or indirectly affected by cultural elements. For example, due to the improvement of communication system and industrialization in rural society, many people are leaving agriculture and joining other economic activities. Again, as a result of the improvement of information technology in the city, people are out of the traditional business information. Focusing on technology based business. Professional diversity (Diversity of occupation): Cultural factors are particularly active in the occupational diversification of people. Cultural factors have influenced people in entering different professions over the ages. Again, influenced by the cultural elements, people have maintained the tendency to retain homogeneous professions of the same caste and lineage. For example, in Sanatan society, as professionals of the same descent, such as weavers, fishermen, blacksmiths, potters, goldsmiths. Similarly, in modern society, professionals who adopt new professions in keeping with the times can also be observed. Social development and mobility: Cultural elements are not less important in social development and mobility. 

Through the direct and indirect influence of cultural elements

 people's thoughts, consciousness, A change in mindset is indicated. Especially as a result of technological development, the trend of modern thought and consciousness among people is mainly the result of cultural elements. For example, land was cultivated with plows in the country, but now it is possible to produce more by cultivating with power tillers. Again in terms of transportation, buses for diplomatic travel. Airplanes or helicopters are more active than trucks, trains. These issues are a direct result of cultural factors. Therefore, it can be seen that cultural factors also affect things like social development and mobility. Language, art and literature: The direct or indirect influence of culture on language, art and literature can be observed. For example, a child born in Bangladesh learns to speak Bengali from the mother's mouth. because Bangla is the spoken language of the people of this country. Again, various poets of the country, The overall condition of the country is clearly revealed in the writings of writers and writers. As an example, poets and writers of this country have written various poems, stories, novels and dramas centered on the great liberation war of Bangladesh. Type of house: The type of house in any region depends on the natural resources and culture found in that area. The types of houses are determined based on the materials available in different regions of Bangladesh. For example, houses in Bogra and Naogaon areas are made of mud. Again the houses in the grasslands are made of bamboo, thatch and tin. Along with materials, local culture also influences the construction of houses. For example, wooden houses are built more in the southern

 Bangladesh. However

wood for building houses is not very readily available there. Health system: The influence of cultural elements on the health system of Bangladesh is undeniable. Once upon a time, the village people were treated by Kaviraj, He goes to a sage or a fakir. When bitten by a snake, it takes away. Near Ojha. Nowadays people are becoming aware due to the spread of education and modern ideas. They rush to the hospital for any health problem. This change is undoubtedly the effect of cultural factors. Dress: The influence of geographical factors as well as cultural factors on the dresses of the people of Bangladesh is noticeable. For example, Muslims wear caps and Hindus wear dhoti according to the traditional religious practices of this country. The influence of rural and urban culture on dress is also noticeable. In rural society girls wear salwar kameez or saree but in urban areas salwar kameez and saree. Also using pants-shirts, tops, gowns etc. If a girl wears pants, it is not as easily accepted by city people as it is by village people. Finally, Cultural elements are inextricably linked with social life. Influenced by cultural factors. Changes can be observed in almost all areas of social life. This is why it is said that cultural elements play an effective role in bringing dynamics or development in social life. Language: Language is one of the means of communication between people. Language as an indicator of development. are identified. In the world, that nation is developed which has been able to improve its language. Although Bangladesh is lagging behind in this regard, the government has recently come forward to give international status to Bengali language. However, there is no language practice here like developed countries. It is not yet possible to start using Bengali language especially in all areas of office and court. As a result, the cultural gap is also visible in the field of language. English is the most accepted language in the whole world along with local languages. At present English language is mainly used in international communication. 

 people in the country are unable to use Bengali as well as English

 As a result, international communication is greatly disrupted. Political system; Considering the spread of modern ideas and the needs of people, there have been many changes in the political system of Bangladesh. For example, following the West, democracy has started to be practiced in all areas of politics. But even though the practice of democracy has started institutionally, the mentality of the politicians has not yet become fully democratic. As a result, there is a cultural gap. Urbanization: Urbanization is the process of making cities. The rate of urbanization in the country is increasing rapidly. At present, about 24 percent of the country's people live in cities. However, the rate at which urbanization is increasing in the country, the civic mindedness is far behind. Even though there have been many developments especially in infrastructure, there has not been much improvement in the mentality of the citizens regarding cleanliness and environmental protection. In other words, the development of the mental world is not possible in keeping with the development of the material world. As a result, there is a cultural gap. Because of this, the socio-economic development activities of the country are being disrupted. Industrialization; The term industrialization refers to the development of a mechanized society from an agrarian society primarily with the help of industry. Small and medium industries have developed a lot in the country at present. Along with the development of industry, there is a change in the mentality of people. However, material culture (eg worker skills, technical knowledge) is not developing at the rate of industrialization in Bangladesh. As a result cultural gap is being observed in the society, as a result of which the industrial production activities of the country are being disrupted. Finally, the characteristic of a healthy, flexible and dynamic society is to maintain a balanced environment between the various parts and elements of the socio-culture. In the era of modern mechanized civilization, many kinds of material inventions and inventions have been made possible due to the advancement of knowledge and science. But the sad fact is that, In keeping with these discoveries, people's mental and material culture is not improving. As a result, a cultural gap is created, disrupting the pace of socio-economic, political and even 

cultural development of the country

single work; Do you see any cultural gaps in your society? Create a list. Homework: After 10 years Junaid Sahib returned to his country from abroad. Going down to Dhaka Airport and going to the village, he saw that many new roads, bridges and flyovers have been built all over the country. Many advanced vehicles hit the roads. There is no limit to his fascination. But he saw that neither the pedestrians nor the drivers obeyed the law. Who is moving as he pleases. As a result, he had to endure many misfortunes along the way. A. Which variation of culture has played a role behind the fascination of Uddipak Junayed Sahib? to explain b. Which theory of culture is similar to Junaid Saheb's story of stimulus? to analyze Society and Civilization of Bangladesh Based on Archeology Human civilization was not a modern keyword from the beginning as it is now. Through different eras, different production methods) the archaic man has reached the present modern time. The history of this journey of humans in the Neolithic Age of Civilization is known through the analysis of archaeological remains (Copper Age). Actually archeological), Bronze Age artifacts are the leh fug of the history of a country or nation. Recognized as one of the most important sources. 2 Important archaeological sites discovered in Uwari-Bateshwar Bangladesh 2 Mahasthangarh, Paharpur, Mainamati and Uari-Bateshwar are among them. In these places (Mahasthangara _) Indus Civilization, the archeological artifacts discovered are the main elements of the social history of the region. In addition, Sir Alexander Cunningham of the artifacts discovered in the Indus civilization. To understand the nature of the social progress of this area. (1814-1893) goes. In this chapter, to analyze the society and civilization of Bangladesh on the basis of archeology, the concept of archeology, the concept of Paleolithic Age.

Neolithic Age, Copper Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age and the important archaeological 

 Bangladesh in the development of civilization and the contribution of Indus civilization are discussed. Definition of Archeology and its Source Archeology is a special branch of anthropology. The English equivalent of archeology is 'Archaeology'. The word comes from the Greek word. From *Arkhaios' and 'Logia'. They mean ancient and lore respectively. So semantically. ' Archaeology' means ancient science. American archaeologist Hebel (E. Adamson Hoebel) in his Arithropology. In The Study of Man', he said, "Archaeology deals with the artifacts left behind by primitive people and their culture." English Anthropologist E. B. Taylor in his 'Dictionary' of Antithropology' said, "Archaeology is the branch of anthropology which deals with the history of cultures whose existence No longer" (Archaeology is the branch of anthropology that is concerned with the historical reconstruction of cultures no longer extant). The main aim of archeology is to trace the history of ancient people. By breaking through the layers of the earth, slowly removing its veil of mystery, archaeologists find traces of ancient people. Ancient furniture is a source of research for archaeologists. Objects used in the past not only add to the museum's wealth, but all. Archaeologists with the help of physical anthropologists analyze the functionality, utility and necessity of the material.


The structure of human beings and their relationship with nature

 on the other hand, with the help of cultural anthropologists, undertake to determine the impact of those materials on society. Judging from this aspect, it can be said that the archaeologist and cultural anthropologist. The difference is only procedural. Because the main purpose of both is to analyze the different lifestyles of people in the past. However. Cultural anthropologists study people living today, Archaeologists are excavating the past there. Find people's biographies. When an archaeologist is busy uncovering the mysteries of the past, he needs the help of the physical anthropologist. Because he has to do research on skeletons or other fossils. There are also many clues in the skeletons or fossils, which resemble the way of life of people in the past. From this point of view, archeology as a separate subject helps to highlight the full scope and depth of anthropology as a whole by establishing a connection between cultural and physical anthropology. Ancient people did not leave any written traces. Because they have not yet learned to write. Therefore, the people of ancient times could not keep the history of laughter and tears of daily life as they are today. But they were laughing and crying like us, People full of happiness and sadness. To get information about their daily diary, we have to rely on the material uncovered by archaeologists. We can learn about the way of life of ancient people by analyzing the materials that they brought out or collected through many layers from under the ground. Archaeologists are able to explain the past history of humans. But archeology is not just the fictional reconstruction of these ancient ruins. In the words of the famous Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe, "Archaeology is the English equivalent of ancient human culture. The word 'Culture' is derived from the Latin word 'Colere'. from Which means to cultivate. In the general sense, culture refers to the practice of language, literature, music and art. On the other hand, from the socialist point of view, everything that people do is culture. British social anthropologist E. in defining culture. B. According to Taylor, "Culture is the complex system that includes knowledge, science, religion, thought, belief, art, law, ethics, manners, habits, values, etc., acquired by the people of the society through heredity."

 American sociologist Ogburn provided the culture gap theory in his book:

 Social Charge. The main point of this theory is, Material culture is a rapidly changing cultural gap as a result of massive advances in science and technology. is changing with which the material culture is unable to adapt or keep up with the same pace. As a result, there is a cultural gap. For example, in Bangladesh, despite the extensive development of roads, road accidents are constantly occurring due to the inefficiency of motorists. 'Political culture' is a reflection of the existing political system in a country. In general sense Political culture refers to citizens' attitudes, beliefs and values ​​about politics. Political culture Political culture consists of people's attitudes, beliefs, feelings and values ​​about political systems and issues. Political Political socialization is the process by which political culture is changed and nurtured. is done In other words, The process by which political culture is socialized at the individual and community level and penetrates from one generation to another is called political socialization. Class structure refers to the structure of different classes existing in the society. Karl Marx pointed out, “A group of individuals who perform the same type of work in a production organization is called a class structure. There are many such classes in society. For example, upper class, middle class and lower class. The arrangement of these classes in society is called class structure. Agrarian structure is the arrangement of social relations centered on agricultural production. In other words, the position of the agricultural sector in the context of the entire economic activity of a society, the unit of production in agriculture and its nature in the agricultural structure, the purpose of the farmer's production, the combination of materials used, the mode of ownership of the means of production, The overall structure of the interrelationship of ownership with other social classes and the state is the agrarian structure. Urbanization is a social process by which people settle in cities or urban areas. The process can work in two ways. namely- a, by increasing the number of cities, b. urbanization. By increasing the range of cities. The urbanization process has two important features. namely population growth and population structure. 

Population structure is again of three types

 namely- a, population explosion, b, increase in population density and c, population diversity. Information technology is the technique of exchanging information. It is a form of technology-based communication. Information technology systems. It is said "Information technology is the technology used to store, manipulate, distribute or create information." The archaeologist's excavation proceeds by removing every smallest soil particle. It also takes time. Requires patience and money. Before starting the excavation, the history of the excavation site should be known very well and the site should be surveyed very carefully with the help of equipment. Once mining is started it is not finished overnight. Archaeologists work for years with infinite patience to complete the work. Sources of Archeology (Sources of Archaeology). Archeology is the study of human activities through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Its main aim or objective is to trace human history. And in doing this, archaeologists have to rely on various sources. They are- Ancient Literature: Ancient art literature serves as an archaeological source for locating human settlements. Sometimes national and local history books also serve as good sources. As an example. By reading Homer's epic Iliad, archaeologists have found the location of the ancient city of Troy. Oral History: Sometimes local history-tradition information from older people in the community serves as a source of archeology. For example, archaeologists can trace the connection of the Macedonian Greek hero Alexander to the antiquities discovered in the area through the legends of the Kalas community living in Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.

 Archaeological equipment (Artifacts): 

Various objects and tools kept in the national and local museums of the country or collected privately are considered as one of the sources for archaeologists. Local knowledge (Indigenous knowledge): The concept or knowledge of local people about a subject is considered as an archaeological source. For example, the perception of local residents about Mahasthangarh in Bogra has helped in the analysis of archaeological artifacts discovered there. Archaeological Hypothesis: Archaeologists make assumptions or presumptions before starting excavation work at a site, which serves as an important source in constructing history in archaeology. Government source (Public source); Various government institutions such as museums, libraries, national archives, national installations etc. are considered as archaeological sources. Previous Survey; Various local, national or international newspapers, magazines, souvenirs, journals, books etc. published about the various archaeological artifacts discovered so far act as one of the sources of archaeology. Information of Cultural Anthropology; The information uncovered by cultural anthropologists is considered an important source in archaeology. For example, cultural anthropologists closely observe different groups and give opinions about the structure of the human body, which is also helpful in the study of archaeologists. For example, the American social anthropologist Lewis Henry Mogan in his 'Ancient Society' about the physical structure, customs, social system, etc. of the Iraquois Indians. The comments he gave in the book helped in the analysis of the archeological artifacts found in the area. Lws | u = Classification of Society on the basis of Archaeological Period The history of human society is discussed in two parts based on the strength of writing. Namely - Stone Age and Metal Age. Pre-writing human society belonged to the Stone Age. And after learning to write, human society belongs to the metal age. On the other hand, based on the tools used by humans, archaeologists have divided human history into three parts. Namely: Old. Stone, New Stone and Metal Ages. The Metal Age is further divided by some into two parts. Namely - Bronze Age and Iron Age. Although the basis of the Archeological age division is the tools and techniques of making tools, the economic, Social and political elements are no less important. Because the tools and techniques of making tools have changed along with the changes in means and means of livelihood. 

techniques of production have changed

 the economic system of people has changed. Besides, changes in production techniques and economic systems have resulted in changes in the social and political organization of society. So it can be said that the archeological period basically refers to an economic, social and political period. Society can be classified on the basis of archaeological period as follows- 1. Stone age (Paleolithic age). | 5. Copper age 2. Early or lower paleolithic age 6. Bronze age (Bronze age) 3. Middle Paleolithic Age | 7. Iron age (Iron age) 4. Neolithic age (Neolithic age) The following table shows the classification of society on the basis of age: | Table: 3. 1 Division of society on the basis of age. Serial No. Geological Age. | Archaic Age. years ago ® The human species Metal Age, Neolithic Age. 3000 1, Halocene 5000 different types of modern man. 13000 | 2. Upper Pleistocene Upper Palaeolithic, Middle Palaeolithic || 4000 Cromagnon is human. 3, Middle Pleistocene Lower Palaeolithic. 80000 picking man. Samad, 2001, ? 61 Archaeologists divide the Stone Age into four stages by determining the evolution of tools used by primitive people and the skills of cultural development. Namely: A, Eolithic Age. c. Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic Age). Th, Paleolithic Age. d. Neolithic Age”. | Even after these divisions of the era, it can be said, No category of history is above criticism. Because history is not a collection of isolated events but a sequence of countless events. As there are traces of the past in the present, there are hints of the future. hr STM does not give partial identities but tries to paint a complete picture of their lives. It must be remembered, however, that the archaeologist is not alone in this effort, but the physical anthropologist, the social or cultural anthropologist, the geologist, the human-chemist. Ancient history is known through the co-ordination and mutual assistance and efforts of the Shastras. Archaeologists not only dig the ground to discover old objects, but also try to write the history of early societies and civilizations by analyzing these objects in various ways. Culture and Archaeological sources 

Culture and Archaeological sources

are the ways in which archaeologists try to reveal the history of ancient societies. Every human group has a different cultural identity. Which is captured in their behavior, behavior and way of life. What is the method of determining the period of these 0 archaeologists? Archaeologists rely on weather, climate, and human radiocarbon to determine archaeological dates. The strangeness of life. Archaeologists use weather, climate dating-14 methods. Willard Libby in 1947 and examined the cultural objects of human use. An American scientist named, discovered that was able to depict organic life. Materials, such as wood, coal, bone, horn, etc., which were once part of some living thing. Determine time: Culture takes a certain amount of carbon-14 from nature. Determining the exact date of the object by determining how much it has decayed to a later one as much as possible in introducing this amount of life is also the subject of the archaeologist's research. We can figure out the age. Since this discovery, archaeologists have known that radio is too long to determine the exact time period of archeological artifacts dating back more than 40 million years of human history. Different across the wide area of ​​the world. Started using carbon dating-14 method. At the site, archaeologists find past artifacts, human burials, fossils, and ruins of their habitats. Determining their relative time through experiments is also a special research task of archaeologists. During this research, the archaeologist has to pay particular attention to the location of the objects found, How widely that material was spread and how it can be preserved for future research. Measurement and Reservation: Finding treasure is not the main objective of an archaeologist. In this context, British archaeologist William Cottrell said, "Even today, many people think that the job of an archaeologist is to find old things, especially valuable old things, and sell them." But to the modern archaeologist, the discovered object is more valuable than the found object. of the place. In fact, to the archeologist, even the smallest object in the archaeological site may be considered of great value, 

ancient earthen wall, a fragment of pottery

 seem to be of no value at all, may serve as a source for writing a new chapter in the pages of history. Therefore, it can be seen that Simple everyday tools, little evidence of boxes worn by ancient people, and even a piece of simple sharpened stone that may have once been used by ancient people; Everything like this is of great value to the archeologist. Excavation; Conducting modern archaeological excavations requires long hours of study and research. Through this pursuit and research, modern archaeologists have established excavation as a sound science. Remove small pieces of stone by application. Munterian tools have been found with Neanderthal skeletons. At that time people were also food gatherers, Not a food producer. Because they have not yet discovered agriculture.

What are the 3 main characteristics of culture?

 However, the stone weapons became smaller in size at this time. During this period, people became very skilled in pottery and painting. The cave paintings of Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh, India, are significant examples of pictorial art of this period. C, Upper paleolithic age: 35000-10000 BC period. is At this time people made very thin long blade like weapons. People of this era made various types of weapons not only from stone but also from bone. At this time people started making needles, awls, fishing spears from bones. Cro-Magnon people were the main inhabitants of this era. Influence of the Paleolithic Age on the development of society and civilization. (Impact of Paleolithic age on the Development of Society and Civilization) Civilization started in the Paleolithic age. People of this age use fire, Taught dressmaking and several crafts. But the life of Paleolithic man was limited. They hunted animals and birds with stones and ate raw meat. They had no cooking utensils, axes with handles, buildings, bows and arrows, cultivated crops, vegetables, domesticated animals. The impact of the Paleolithic on the development of society and civilization is discussed below: Innovation of tools: The main goal of the Paleolithic people was to collect food. While mastering the techniques of food gathering, they were able to invent various types of tools. These tools include stone knives, bone weapons, hand axes etc. Social organization; During the Paleolithic period, people gathered together only to hunt or gather food. At the end of the need, this alliance would be broken. As a result, there was no social bond or 

solidarity between them. Innovation of fire: Fire 

the main invention of man in the ancient stone age. They learn to make fire by rubbing stones against stones. This discovery made an important contribution to the development of human society and civilization. Because the use of fire makes many tasks of people's daily life easier. Discover of Language; The language of the Paleolithic people was unlettered. They united for livelihood and expressed their thoughts with the help of different words and shapes. Art of painting; A characteristic of the Paleolithic paintings is the comparison of hunting with witchcraft. Their hunting activities, puja-parban, Among the images that are available about customs etc., the importance of various activities of their sexual life can also be noted. Dressing; Early Paleolithic people did not use any clothing. Later on, they learn to cover their bodies with tree leaves, bark, animal skin etc. to protect themselves from hostile weather. People of this era used bone needles to make costumes. At the beginning of this era to escape from winter. Peshakas are made but later used to hide shame. Neolithic Age Holocene Age (11 BC, 650 years ago to the present time period) from the beginning of Christ's birth. Neolithic period up to 3500 years ago.” The Neolithic Age began in the Middle East around 7000 BC. It later spread to the Mediterranean region and finally reached present-day Britain around 2500 BC. This is the period described by American social anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan (Barbarism). Old Stone Age people could not fully master nature. Their food depended on nature's supply. But Neolithic people were not completely dependent on nature, they learned to make their own food by taming nature to some extent. Noting these improvements, Australian anthropologist V. Gordon Childe (Vere Gordon Childe) called this era the Neolithic Revolution. Called as Neolithic people also contributed a lot to the arts. They were able to make clothes, houses, boats, agricultural machinery etc. with its help. The people of this era were the first to practice trade and exchange. Impact of Neolithic Age on the Development of Society and Civilization 1. Social organization: The basic foundation of any society is social organization. In the Neolithic period there were some social organizations of any kind, which maintained order and cohesion in community life. Totem beliefs were the basis of social organization in this era. That is, they worshiped a particular tree, animal or something else. A. kind of faith, Tribes are associated with a particular animal or plant through customs and rituals. 

The basis of people's thinking and ideology of this era was superstition and superstition 

 Economic system: In this era every village or organization was self-sufficient. That is, all the food and materials necessary for living were produced by the people of the village themselves. People of this era established permanent settlements through the invention of agriculture and were able to subdue nature. When the use of plow in agriculture started. And girls did not do physical labor. Although agriculture was invented by women. Discrimination between men and women starts from here. Therefore, it is said that the basis of patriarchal society is agricultural production system. 3. Innovation of arms; Australian archaeologist V Gordon Child commented, "With the tools of the Neolithic age many important changes took place in the material life of man." The necessary tools for removing the husk from the seeds, the smooth tools made by rubbing on the stone or pounding with the stone, began to improve little by little. Gordon Child's argument is that once tools began to be made in the Neolithic, farming became much easier. As a result of excavations at Indus Civilization and other archaeological sites. Paleolithic Age Paleo means ancient in Greek. And Lithos means stone. So in the literal sense Paleolithic Bengali ancient stone. The era that geologists call the Pleistocene (Pleistocene), That is the Paleolithic age according to archaeologists. of this era. The duration is about two hundred thousand years. The main inhabitants of this era were Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon people. Early Stone Age. The tool is probably a picked stone pebble. The pebbles, however, were not the work of human hands. Gradually, people learn to shape the pebbles by knocking them with stones. 

notable tool of this period was the hand axe

 There is evidence that people used stone tools in later times. The tools of this era were relatively blunt. The Paleolithic era began 25 million years ago and ended 10,000 years ago. Features of the ancient stone age (Characteristics of Paleolithic Age) a. food collection g, Lack of division of labor b, Use of fire. h, group living c. nomadic life Jh. Classlessness d. Knowledge of magic and the supernatural. Self-reliance U, use of bamboo, leather and wood. t, Communism f. Inadequacy of population. In the light of history, the Paleolithic is again divided into three sub-periods. respectively. Lower Paleolithic Age b. Middle Paleolithic Age (Middle Paleolithic Age) c. Upper Paleolithic Age. A. Lower paleolithic age: The period of this era is considered to be from 1 lakh to 70 thousand years before Christ. During this period, people first made stone weapons according to plans with a specific purpose. His creative power is caught in the stone weapon. So stone weapons are considered to be unique to their culture. identity At that time people were food gatherers. They did not know how to cultivate or produce crops. Fruits and animal meat were their main food. At that time people were nomads. They moved around in small groups. Axes were one of the stone weapons they used for hunting animals. West Punjab. Paleolithic handaxes have been found in the Sayan River basin. B, Middle paleolithic age: 70000-35000 BC is considered as the Middle Paleolithic period. The culture of this period is generally referred to as Mousterian. Because stone weapons of this period were first found in the La-Muntie cave in France. Most of them are very similar to knives and spears. to see To make these weapons, people slowly pressed the stone flints with deer antlers or other hard objects. The Copper and Bronze Age began in Europe around 3000 BC until The period between the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age is called the Copper Age. Originally, Tam Yuga refers to the era when copper was the main material for making human tools and weapons. 4000 BC in the Near East. Cyprus, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Turkey etc.

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copper was in vogue. From these countries copper circulation spread to Central and Western Europe. Copper has been widely used in the Sinai Peninsula and the island of Cyprus since ancient times. The Copper Age civilization was not only confined to Mohenjodaro in Sindh and Harpla in Punjab, but also in the entire Gangetic Valley, Buxar, Patna, Kanauj and Ujjain with many traces of that period. found Besides Hastinapur, Kurukshetra, Indraprastha, Mathura, Gujarat and Kaushambi, 32 miles south-west of Allahabad, traces of Tam Yuga have also been discovered. Excavations of the mounds of Pandu Raja on the banks of the Ajay River in Burdwan district of West Bengal, India have yielded some traces of the Copper Age. The first Bronze Age urban civilization emerged in Egypt or Mesopotamia through the development of Neolithic society. Between 4000 and 3000 BC Egypt, India, The Bronze Age began in Mesopotamia and China and lasted until 1400 BC. This era ended with the discovery of iron around 1200 BC. Advanced Bronze Age urban civilization developed in the Indus Basin of the Indian subcontinent around 2600 BC. Probably from Babylon or Egypt, the Bronze Age civilization reached the Indian subcontinent. Impact of Copper & Bronze Ages on the Development of Society and Civilization Copper age: The importance of the Copper Age in history is relatively small. In fact, the period between the Stone Age and the Bronze Age lasted for only a few hundred years. The use of stone and copper is one of the characteristics of this era. Among the metals, copper was first used. At first, copper was a very rare commodity. That is why tools were made by mixing copper with stone tools. As long as copper and stone were used side by side as tools, this state of human civilization is called the Chalcolithic age. The special contribution of the civilization of this era is - determining the direction of the ocean currents, making weapons useful for self-defense and war. During this period, people began to use copper as a raw material for making various useful tools, weapons and jewelry, which played a role in social change. In addition, due to mining and copper, new occupations in the society, Social groups and social hierarchies are born. At the top of the hierarchy at that time were the caste who protected their village communities. Also, the copper trade provided contact with distant cultures. Artifacts found in the mound of King Pandu. It can be understood that the Copper Age people probably worshiped Mother Goddess and Linga Puja. They earned their living by farming. Apart from this, they were also involved in hunting and fishing. People of this era used to bury dead bodies. Bronze age (Bronze age); ancient europe, The third phase of metallurgical cultural development of the people of Asia and the Middle East is the Bronze Age. Perhaps the Sumerian civilization first started the process of making bronze by mixing tin with copper. First in this era. It is termed as Metal Age. The beginning of this period is sometimes called the Chalcolithic period." That is, the technological age between the Stone Age and the Iron Age is called the Bronze Age. In this era, various types of tools and weapons were made with bronze metal, which made people's lives easier. In this context, the Wikipedia entry says, The overall period is characterized by the full adoption of bronze in many regions, although the place and time of the introduction and development of bronze technology was not universally synchronous. Three phases of the Foo ethicos Bronze Age are noteworthy. Namely — a. Early Bronze Age: 3000-2100 BC. b. Middle Bronze Age (Middle or Intermediate Bronze Age): 2100-1550 BC. c. Late Bronze Age: 1550-1400 BC. Coinage began to circulate in the Bronze Age, and as a result common markets developed in different places. Market emergence products. Motivates the seller to produce. During this period, nomadic groups established permanent settlements and society developed. they are Building a house with a canopy of leaves on the trunk of a tree. Since the invention of the wheel, the use of bullock-driven vehicles began. In the Assyrian and Sumerian realms, boats were the first form of transportation. It helps in expansion of trade. In addition, cultivation started with the help of wheels 

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 animals during the Bronze Age. In this era, trade and commerce took an international form for the first time. The Mediterranean Sea from 3000 BC, Large boats or ships used to sail across the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. As proof of that, we can see pictures of boats with sails on Egyptian pottery. People used to determine the direction by looking at the stars in the sky for traveling by sea. As a result, the foundations of astronomy and mathematics were laid. At this time, trade continued with the help of bronze instead of exchanging goods for goods. People of this era started making various tools with bronze. these Weapons include armour, helmet, shield, spear, arrow etc. The writing system that began in the Neolithic Age was greatly improved in the Bronze Age. At the end of this period the Egyptians used 'hieroglyphics'. Invents the writing system. The invention of writing led to the expansion of education. In this era, there are various tools made of bronze Nor helped to develop advanced civilizations in various places. Among them, Egyptian, Sumerian, Chaldean, Babylonian, Assyrian, Chaldean, Hittite, Sindhu, Crete, Aztec, Inca, Chinese etc. civilizations are noteworthy. At the end of this era, people introduced the practice of cremation. Dhyatra: Mu. Neolithic Age Holocene Age (11 BC, 650 years ago to the present time period) from the beginning to 3500 years before the birth of Christ. It later spread to the Mediterranean region and finally to present-day Britain by 2500 BC. begins This is the era described by the American social anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan (Lewis Henry Morgan). (Barbarism). Old stone age people could not fully master the nature. Their food depended on nature's supply. But Neolithic people were not completely dependent on nature, they learned to make their own food by taming nature to some extent. Australian anthropologist V. noted these improvements. Gordon Childe (Vere Gordon Childe) called this era the Neolithic Revolution. Called as Neolithic people also contributed a lot to the arts. They were able to make clothes, houses, boats, agricultural machinery etc. with the help of looms. The people of this era were the first to practice trade and exchange. Impact of Neolithic Age on the Development of Society and Civilization 1. Social organization; Social organization is the basic foundation of any society. In the Neolithic period there were some social organizations of any kind, which maintained order and cohesion in community life. In this era. The basis of social organization was totem belief. That is, they worshiped a particular tree, animal or something else. Such belief, Tribes are associated with a particular animal or plant through customs and rituals. 12. The basis of people's thinking and ideology of this era was superstition and superstition. 2. Economic system: In this era every village or organization was self-sufficient. That is, all the food and materials necessary for living were produced by the people of the village themselves. People of this era established permanent settlements through the invention of agriculture and were able to subdue nature. When the use of plow in agriculture started. And girls did not do physical labor. Although agriculture was invented by women. Discrimination between men and women starts from here. Therefore, it is said that the basis of patriarchal society is agricultural production system. 3. Innovation of arms: Australian archaeologist V. Gordon Child commented, "With the tools of the Neolithic age many important changes took place in the material life of man." The necessary tools for removing the husk from the seeds gradually evolved into smooth tools made by grinding or pounding stones. 

What is culture and political culture?

Gordon Childe's argument is that once the Neolithic began tool making It was done, it became much easier to cultivate such land. As a result of excavations at Indus Civilization and other archaeological sites. Division of labour: Division of labor increases due to the use of iron. A group of expert classes was formed in the work of mining. Where mines were discovered, mining experts would gather and cities would be built around the mines. Workers were divided into metal mining and tool making. The peasants depended on the artisans engaged in agricultural work and in the tool industry for tools. metal lifting, Tool making and agriculture were separated from each other and division of labor was created. Development of alphabet: The invention of alphabet is an important step in the development of society and civilization. Although the use of script began in the Bronze Age, it was perfected in the Iron Age. Trade and commerce flourished around the city. As a result, there is a need for documents regarding transactions, contracts etc. Scripts were developed to meet this need. Iron, the pictorial hieroglyphic script invented by the Egyptians during the Bronze Age. The Phoenicians later developed and invented alphabetic writing. Their alphabet had 22 consonants. Use of animals: At the beginning of the Iron Age, horse husbandry improved and horse riding began. Interestingly, Although humans knew the use of horses, they started riding horses after a long thousand years. Perhaps before horses, humans rode camels. In the early Sumerian civilization, people rode on donkeys. Horse breeding was first started by the Medes near Hamadan in western Iran. People of Central Asia. Sheep were reared for milk and meat. Horse riding began in Iran before the seventh century BC. Shortly thereafter, horse climbing began in Central and Western Europe, in Greece and Italy. Besides, goods were transported by camels in Baluchistan, Arabia and Sahara. This trade continued to India and Africa. Use of wheel: The invention of wheel is a milestone in the development of human technology. One of the most important contributions of the Iron Age was the use of the wheel. Wheeled shot was discovered during the Iron Age. As a result of the invention of the wheel, transportation, transportation of goods, trade, Trade increases and the division of labor expands. Not only in vehicles but wheels also introduced new trends in artwork. In particular, the use of the wheel brought about a revolutionary change in pottery. The invention of the wheel enabled people to travel around the world. As a result, the exchange of ideas between different nations, trade and commerce increased. Regarding the importance of the wheel, Gordon Child said, 

"The wheel is the absolute achievement 

 prehistoric woodworking and the prerequisite of modern machinery." In the context of the above discussion, it can be said that the Iron Age is an important step in the development of human society and civilization. With the advent of the Iron Age, a revolutionary change in human society and civilization took place. which later accelerated the onset of modernity. Role of Major Archaeological Sites for the Development of Society and Civilization in Bangladesh At the root of the glorious characteristics of Bengalis are ethnic ethnographic distinctiveness and the infinite harmony of Bengal's nature. of Bengal Nature, with its own characteristics, has exerted a special influence on the Bengali character. Kapil, the original scholar of Samkhyashastra, was born in Gangesagar Sangam in Bengal. He was born and spread the light of knowledge throughout India. gave In ancient Buddhism and Jainism, the word 'Sankhya' meaning experience peaked in Bangladesh. Bengali generosity, cherished by the sweet and juicy nature, born. Sankhya philosophy is one of the six theistic branches of Indian Hindu philosophy. Inexhaustible by the inspiration of humanity, Buddhism and Jainism informed the reception. The Hindu mythological sage Kapil became the meeting place of Aryan and Aryan civilizations. Atish is considered to be the originator of Bengal philosophy. almost Dipankara was the beacon of his wisdom in Tibet about a thousand years ago. 2,000,000 years ago, Hindus radiated this philosophy and enlightened the whole of Tibet. He was the Principal of Nalanda University in the representative philosophy branch of Bengali Shilabhadra society. In that era he became the best in India? He was recognized as a scholar. By Indian historian Rameshchandra Majumdar. According to him, the foundation of the ancient civilization of Bengal was laid even before the writing of 'Buddhayana's Dharmasutra' in the sixth century BC. In Bengal. The existence of early mankind has also been found. Human fossils found in 1978 at Sajua, near Ramgarh in Medinipur district of West Bengal, India, were estimated by archaeologists to be around 10, 000 years In this way, various types of cultural environments were formed on the soil of this country along the path of different lifestyles throughout the ages. These cultural lives are manifested in various arts and sculptures. But nothing is stable in a changing world. One day, even the brilliant cultures that were formed as a result of the thoughts of hundreds of people had to collapse in the face of change. Those fallen old cultural artifacts have become the object of pursuit of thoughtful thinkers today. The research that thoughtful thinkers have been carrying out since the beginning of the 18th century with the passion to find the history of human civilization in the ancient world.