What are archaeological examples?

What are archaeological examples?

Recently, museums have been created in every country of the world for the preservation and research of archaeological materials. The scholars of our country are also conducting research to restore the ancient traditions of the country. What we lost in the past That is the object of our study today. Because from that a picture can be drawn of the style of ancient Bengali civilization, ideas, beliefs, rituals, art and sculpture. For example, Dhaka and Sylhet districts of Bangladesh have many traces of Muslim civilization. There are traces of ancient Buddhist civilization in Mainamati, Paharpur, Mahasthangarh, Barendra Valley, Samat and Pundravardhan. 

What are archaeological examples?

At the same time, there are many traces of Hindu civilization in these regions. These signs are valuable resources of national life. The people of ancient Bengal were resplendent in religion, architecture, sculpture, painting, music and other arts, which can be seen from these ruins. What is the archaeological record of a country's society? One of the most important sources of history. In different regions of Bangladesh. Archaeological remains known include Uari-Bateshwar, Mainamati, The names of Mahasthangarh and Paharpur are worth mentioning. All this. Archaeological excavations have taken place at various times and in the absence of detailed decipherment, our knowledge of these sites remains very limited. In addition to these regions, the Indus civilization has also made a significant contribution to the development of the society and civilization of Bengal. Much of Bengali daily life is influenced by Indus civilization. For example, the measurement systems we use were first practiced in the Indus civilization. Iron Age The use of iron as a metal is the highest stage of human civilization. In fact, the ultimate development of urban civilization has become possible. Due to the use of iron as a metal. The Iron Age began around 1500 BC. currently The barbarian tribes living in what is now modern Armenia were the first to make stone tools. However, the Hittites living in Asia Minor were the first to develop the iron industry. at a later time The Assyrians Start using iron. Gradually, iron began to be used in the Mediterranean region, the East and Europe. Around 1100 BC, the Iron Age began in Crete and Greece in Europe. Widespread in Britain by 500 BC. The use of stone began. According to the British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler (Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler), the use of iron began in India around 600 BC. Around the same time, the Iron Age also began in China. From India, the use of iron gradually spread to Indonesia in Southeast Asia. Malay, Among the Negroes of Polynesia and Africa, the use of stone became common with the end of the Stone Age. They knew the use of either copper or bronze. The use of bronze and iron began together in Japan. Influence of the Iron Age on the evolution of society and civilization. (Impact of Iron Age on the Development of Society and Civilization) The use of iron is a breakthrough step in the development of human civilization. Just as the emergence of agriculture changed the way of life of people, the use of iron has brought about a great change in the way of life of people over time. Origin of Civilization: The origin of urban civilization is the main feature of the Iron Age. Leha is the foundation of modern civilization. The use of iron machinery increased the production in agriculture. As a result, the amount of crops also increases. 

What are the types of material remains in archaeology?

This surplus crop is deposited in the hands of kings, priests and landowners. They don't have to work in the fields. However, additional opportunities for their comfort are created. Along with this, the new materials and luxuries of comfort and luxury will increase. remains Business and trade expanded to collect these luxury goods. The city was developed for the needs of trade and life. As a result, urban civilization was created and the growing villages took the form of cities. Production system: The use of iron tools brought incredible abundance in production. Iron tools are more useful than stone tools. Because the iron tool is shaped as desired. go and they are stones, Harder and much sharper than copper or bronze. Besides, iron is lighter in weight than stone, making tools made of it easier to use. Iron tools greatly increased human efficiency. During the cultivation of the land in the Stone Age, stone tools did not go deep into the soil. But during the Iron Age, strong yet light and sharp tools made of iron penetrate deep into the soil and make the land easily arable. During this period, the use of sickles, sickles etc. made of iron began. Agricultural production increased as a result of the application of virtually new types of tools. After all, the advent of iron allowed mechanized power in production and accelerated the Industrial Revolution. 22 The place can be assumed to be a center of foreign trade in the early historical period. Dilip Kumar Chakraborty deduces from Ptolemy's account, In the early historical period, Uari-Bateshwar served as a trading post for collection and distribution in Southeast Asia and the Solomons of the Roman Empire. Discovery (Discover); Muhammad Hanif Pathan, a local school teacher, first discovered a few coins (which were the oldest silver coins in Bangladesh) in a jar in December 1933 while digging in the soil of laborers in the village of Uari. He writes in 'Ancient Coinage' in the weekly Muhammadi. Uari-Bateshwar first came to the attention of Sudhi Samaj by publishing the headline news. Later his son Habibullah Pathan started writing in newspapers highlighting the importance of the place from the next decade. He also published a short book in 1989. Finally Jahangirnagar. A team led by Professor Sufi Mastafizur Rahman of the University's Department of Archeology formally and scientifically started its archaeological excavations in 2000. Archaeological relics; Notable artefacts discovered at Uari-Bateshwar include semi-precious stone beads, knobbed pottery, silver boats, fish and sun imprinted coins, gambling ware, fluted pottery, clay plaques, ceramics, iron hand axes, spears, arrow heads, knives, North Indian black colored smooth Pottery shards, laterite clay shards, colored drawn glass beads, sandwich glass beads, Bronze horse, bronze. Cows, earthen missiles, Shiva offerings etc. From all these archaeological findings, it is believed that this is probably the oldest market in the world where monetary silver currency system was in operation. Actually there was Uari-Bateshvara. A river port, a trading center and a center for the production of precious stone beads. It has been mentioned as the eastern boundary of the Mauryan Empire. With this region there were commercial contacts with South-East Asia and the Mediterranean region. 

What are the 3 types of archaeology?

Durg Nagar (Fort city): Fort city of double defense is found in Uari-Bateshwar. There are a handful of double defense strongholds in the subcontinent. Its importance and dignity can be understood from this. Besides, a high earth embankment called 'Asam Rajar Garh' is seen in the Uari-Bateshwar area. Assam Raja averages about 58 km long, 20 meters wide and 10 meters high. Here is a mud walled fort of about 600m x 600m area. can be seen, which is known as Uari. There are moats around Uari Nagar. That Dilip Kumar Chakraborty considered Uari-Bateshwar Durgnagar as the capital of that township. Pit dwelling: Found in Uari-Bateshwar pit dwelling. A habitable 'pit settlement'. This type of pit settlement is the first in Bangladesh. discovery Earlier people used to live in such small holes. This proves that there was human settlement here even in the copper age. Traces of the collapsed earthen walls of a house dating back to the 5th century BC have also been found inside the citadel here. Other than Uwari-Bateshwar, such ancient clay architectural remains have not been found anywhere else in Bangladesh. Similar pit settlements have been discovered in Pakistan and India and they It is believed to be 4000 years ago. Such pits prove settlement. that, Uwari-Bateshwar was in the initial stage of urbanization.34. Banijyanagar (Commercial city): Uwari-Bateshwar, located on the banks of the Brahmaputra and Arial Khan rivers, was two and a half thousand. An ancient fort and river port. Small precious stone beads and other artefacts have been discovered here. that being done, It was a prosperous trading city. As the place is free from floods, the settlement here is indicative of the development planning and intelligence of the people. In fact Uwari-Bateshwar was a city developed in the process of urbanization. Also located in the old Brahmaputra basin, Uwari-Bateshwar was a river port and international trade center. Uarabateshwar had commercial connections with many pre-historic cities of the Indian subcontinent and with Southeast Asia and the Mediterranean region. Uwari-Bateshwar was also connected with the world famous silk route of three thousand years old. Geographically Uwari-Bateshwar is believed to have had commercial connections with Assam due to its location in the tributary 

old Brahmaputra River. Economy (Economy); 

The inhabitants of the Uwari-Bateshwar region used river water for agricultural irrigation in the fertile valleys along the banks of the old Brahmaputra river. The inhabitants of this place are fishing, In transportation and transportation of goods. The use of rivers was very effective and planned. It is believed that the rivers played an important role in the life and culture of the people of this region, daily activities and the patterns of the rich urban system that have already been discovered in the region. Two and a half thousand year old beads of quartz, amethyst, jasper, carnelian, agate etc. stones have been found here. Exhibiting great craftsmanship, skill and refined taste in bead making. goes Perhaps beads were made in factories here. Advanced technology; Technological knowledge improves and simplifies human life. The inhabitants of Uaribateshwar were also familiar with advanced technology. They could cut stones to make beautiful and beautiful beads. They knew the technology of making coins by melting metals. They could decorate the beads using different chemical substances. Apart from this, they could also use chemicals to coat the black smooth pottery. They used advanced technology to make pottery by temperature control. Several thousand stone handaxes have been found at Uaribateshwar. This proves that iron ore used to be smelted here. According to historian Pranab Chattopadhyay, Uwari-Bateshwar was a center of iron ware manufacturing. Religion: It is not known precisely what the religious beliefs of the inhabitants of Uari-Bateshwar were. However, some artefacts have been discovered, from which it can be assumed that, Both Buddhism and Shaivism were prevalent in Uari-Bateshwar during pre-historic times. A lotus temple has been discovered here. Besides, recently a fragment of facade of an altar made of sandstone was discovered here. Engraved with three-leafed tree and three-jewel symbols, this altar is associated with Buddhist religion and culture. The bronze offering vessel found here depicts Vrishavana Shiva,

 Mushikavanha Ganesha, Balarama

symbols of the Shaivite faith. However, as traces of both Buddhism and Shaivism have been found at Uari-Bateshwar, it can be assumed that there was a fusion of different religions. Finally, Uwari-Bateshwar is an early metropolis of urban civilization in the subcontinent, which has opened up the ancient period of our roots, and testified that Bengali culture is not a thousand years old, but two and a half thousand years old. It can be said with certainty that If a proper analysis of the artefacts found in Uari-Bateshwar is possible, new aspects of the history of the development of society and civilization of Bangladesh will be revealed. L / COLI Wari-Boteswar Recently Wari-Boteswar is the most talked about archaeological site in Bangladesh. It is a milestone in the history of Bengal. A two and a half thousand year old city is buried under the Kashizmi, Bagbagicha and houses here. Dr. Dilip Kumar Chakraborty in his book 'Ancient Bangladesh' says, "Uwari-Bateshwar is at least 2,200 years old and had connections with the Mediterranean and Southeast Asia." Prehistoric stone and petrified fossils, wooden tools, copper stone culture pit settlements and all the artefacts significant in rewriting the history of Bangladesh have been discovered in this area. In fact, Uwari-Bateshwar was the oldest metropolis, trading center and capital city of Bangladesh. Location: Uari-Bateshwar is located in the village of Uari-Bateshwar, about 4 kilometers southwest of Belab Upazila in Narsingdi, a district in the north-eastern part of Bangladesh. Both the villages are located relatively high and free from the effects of floods. Once upon a time the old Brahmaputra river flowed past both villages. At present the river flows at a distance of about three kilometers from Uari-Bateshwar village solo. | SE Historical background: The invention of agriculture in the history of the world took place about 10 thousand years ago and since then the archaeological remains discovered at Uari-Bateshwar. People started building permanent settlements. Following this, the urban civilizations that developed in Egypt, China, Mesopotamia and the Indian subcontinent, He is about five thousand years old. After the Indus civilization, the second phase of urban civilization in the Indian subcontinent is represented in the

 Uwari-Bateshwar and Mahasthangarh

 areas of Bangladesh. Uari-Bateshwar is a citadel dating back to 500 BC. Uari-Bateshvara was described by many Greek geographers, astronomers, mathematicians Ptolemy as a 'sauna'. identified Ptolemy mentions this in his book 'Geographia'. Apart from this Ptolemy mentions some other commercial cities. They are Orikamdu of India, Mantai of Sri Lanka, Kion Thaem of Thailand etc. Each of them were ancient civilizations/civilized cities at that time. Uari-Bateshwar bears the characteristics of the aforementioned commercial cities. Infrastructure; Ancient forts, ports, Streets and side streets. Durgnagar settlement has been confirmed to date back to 450 BC through laboratory tests in the Netherlands. Uari The village has a 600 meter long square rampart and moat. Another rampart and moat with a length of 5.8 km is Arial Khan, starting from Senatla village and passing over Bateshwar, Hanyarchaid, Rajarbagh and Amla villages. The river has extended to the border. Such defensive walls are indicative of important commercial or administrative centers, which Ancient urbanization is also one of the conditions. Besides, an ancient paved road 160 meters long and 26 meters wide was discovered in Uari village, which was constructed using brick fragments, lime, North Indian black smooth pottery fragments, with him There are small pieces of laterite soil. Dilip Kumar Chakraborty, Emeritus Professor of the Department of Archeology of South Asia, University of Cambridge, said, "Such a long and wide road has not been observed in the entire Gangetic valley, and it can be identified as the second urbanization of this area." Location of Uari-Bateshwar on the upland of Gairic soil on the south bank of the river basin.Due to its geographical location, Discover: With the passage of time, Mahasthangarh disappeared from the public eye. Cut in 1808 AD. Theologian Francis Buchanan Hamilton (Francis Buchanan Hamilton) first identified the location of Mahasthangarh. Later in 1879, English archaeologist and military engineer Sir Alexander Cunningham (Sir Alexander Cunningham) identified Mahasthan as Pundanagar according to the description of Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang.

 oldest inscription in Bengal written in Brahmi

 script discovered in 1930 proves that Mahasthangarh was the ancient Pundranagar. Department of Archaeological Survey of India in 1928-29 under the supervision of K.N. Dixit. Excavations were first started at Mahasthangarh. After that, excavations have been carried out here in various stages at different times. Archaeological Relics. The main artifacts found at Mahasthangarh are briefly discussed below: Bairagir bhita: At Mahasthangarh there are ruins of two large temples called Bairagi's Vita'. Bairagi's Vita Supa is about 92 meters long and 8 meters wide. It is situated 3 meters above the plain. The two temples are made of hand-made bricks. It is estimated to belong to the Pala period by looking at the architectural technique. Gobinda Bhita: The most interesting landmark of Mahasthangarh is Gobinda Bhita. Gavinda Vita. Locally known as 'Vishnu Mandir'. Mahasthangarh is 185 meters from the jetty outside the fort wall. On the north side is the location of Gavinda Vita. It is believed to have been built around 6th or 7th century AD. At its center was an altar. Khodai Pathar Mound; It is the ruins of a Buddhist temple. The size of the temple is 7.3 m x 5 m. The size of the discovered stone is 3 meters x 0.75 meters x 0.75 meters. Seeing this temple, it is assumed that, Buddhist society and culture once had considerable influence here. Parsuramer prasad; It is the ruins of the royal palace of Parashuram, the last Hindu king of Mahasthangarh. It measures 61 m x 30.48 m. The palace has walls, terraces and guardhouses on both sides. here As a result of the excavations, various cultural artifacts from the Pala, Muslim and British colonial periods have been found. 

Parsuramer sovabati (Parsuramer sovabati);

 Parashuram's Sabhabati is located next to the broad road that extends from Khaedai Pathar Vita to Mathura village and Vasubihar. It is known that Parashuram used to conduct his royal meetings here. Traces of a temple built during the Pala period in the 8th century AD have been found here. Besides, stone Vishnupatta and clay plaques have also been found here. Shiladebir ghat; The ghat is 182 meters east of Mahasthangarh opposite Bairagi Vita. located History shows that Parma was the daughter of Parashuram, a Hindu courtesan of Mahasthangarh. Beautiful Shiladevi. When the Muslims led by Sultan Balkhi Mahi Sawar defeated and killed King Parashuram and occupied the fort, Shiladevi was captured by the Muslims. Shiladevi killed the victorious ruler by stabbing her in self-defence and surrendered herself by jumping into the Karaetya river. The place where he committed suicide by jumping into the river. Known as Shiladevi's Ghat. Gokul medh (Gokul medh); It is situated on a hill about 13 meters high, one mile south-west of Mahasthangarh. Many people call it the 'Medha temple of Lakhinder'. The ruins suggest that it is. Buddhists had a central shrine. Nearby is an 11th century multi-chambered religious temple. with him The open courtyard was probably built for religious bathing. Munir ghon (Munir ghon); Mahasthangarh has a fort wall called Munir Ghaen. It is 3 meters high, 33 meters wide and 30 meters long from north to south. In terms of architectural techniques, it is assumed to be of the Pala period. A 'tower' is found here. It was probably used to keep an eye on river raiders. Mankalir bhita; About 100 meters north-east of Khaedai Patharvita and about 200 meters south of Tiyakunda are ancient ruins and a pond on the adjacent west side. This mound and pond are locally known as Mankali Vita and Kund. Other relics; Other monuments discovered at Mahasthangarh include Jiyat Kund, Northern Fort Wall, Pat Kuya, Skanda's Steps etc. From the ruins here, clay plates, toys, dishes, utensils, water pots, cooking utensils, ceramics, doats, lamps, copper-bronze ornaments, batams, Stone Vishnu idol, clay. Seals etc. were found. Social and historical importance of Mohasthangarh: Mahasthangarh is a little exception from all the archaeological sites discovered in Bangladesh so far. In other archetypes. (Paharpur, Mainamati, Uwari-Bateshwar etc.) Usually traces of Buddhist and Hindu culture are found, but traces of Jain, Brahminical, Buddhist, Islamic and British colonial culture are found in Mahasthangarh. All the artifacts discovered

Mahasthangarh have immense social and historical importance

 From them, one can get a good idea about the socio-economic, political, cultural and overall lifestyle of ancient Bengal and all the societies and religious communities of the later period. The architectural art here and the geometric designs on the walls, stairs,. pyramid, The lotus petals etc. are suggestive of pre-Mughal era Muslim architecture. There are also the ruins of a pre-Mughal mosque, the shrine of the Arab traveler Mahiswar, and a mosque. The oldest inscription of Bengal found at Mahasthangarh is written in Prakrit. This is the only literary evidence of the Maurya era found in Bengal. The Mahasthanlipi mentions the circulation of a type of coin called 'Gandaka' and another type of coin called 'Kaknik' is also known. A gold coin bearing the image of Emperor Kanishka was found in the ruins here. Archaeologists. He thinks that this coin came from a commercial source. From various cultural materials found in the ruins of Mahasthangarh, it is believed to have been the capital of the Maurya, Gupta, Pala and other Hindu feudatory kings. Historians Braj Dulal and Vijayakumar Tagore claim, “Cities existed in Mahasthan during the early medieval period. The northern wall of Mahasthan shows traces of Gupta, Pala and Muslim settlements. Hindu, Muslim and Buddhist influences are inferred from the plaques found in the walled fort here. Here there are footprints engraved on the head of a stone statue. Many people think that this is happening. It symbolizes the victory of Brahmanism over Buddhism. Mohasthangarh Pundanagar or Mahasthangarh is the richest of the archaeological sites discovered in Bangladesh. 'Mahasthan Brahmi Inscription' written around 2nd century BC Pundangal or Pundanagar is mentioned. Perhaps this Pundangal is the then capital of Punda or the present Mahasthangarh. Location Mahasthangarh is located 12 kilometers north of Bogra district town. To the east of it flows the Karateaya river. Mahasthangarh is 1524 meters long and 1371 meters wide. Its height is about 5 meters from the surrounding plains. It is estimated that there was a suburban area of ​​up to 152 meters outside this ancient city. 

Historical background It is believed 

that between the third and fifteenth centuries BC, a prosperous town developed in Mahasthangarh. Apart from Buddhists, Guptas, Palas and some other Hindu feudal dynasties here. was the capital. With increasing prosperity, Punda transformed into Pundravardhan in the 5th-6th centuries. Pundravardhan Bogra of that time, It extended to Dinajpur and Rajshahi districts. Again, the name of Varendra township is found as the center of Pundravardhana from the tenth century. A Southern inscription of 967 AD mentions a Brahmin named 'Barendradyutikarini' and 'Gauda Churamani' དབདས1•། ་་༦ ཤ1: , - mentioned. The medieval poet Sandhyakar Nandi in his poem 'Ramcharita' refers to Barendri as the birthplace of the Pala kings. Many believe that Mahasthan Vihara was created during the reign of the Pala kings. This city gained the status of an important administrative center from before the fourth century BC. Mahasthangarh developed as a prosperous town till the fifteenth century AD. From the 11th century, the authority of the Sen dynasty began in some parts of Bangladesh. During the reign of the kings of the Sena dynasty, the administrative center shifted from Pundranagar to Gauda. As a result Pundranagar. Fall under the influence of destruction. Naming (Naming); Many people think 'Mahasthangarh' from the name of Majnu Shah Mustan, the Fakir leader of Bengal. The origin of the name. Again many from the tomb of Sultan Mahiswar in the eastern corner of Mahasthangarh. It is believed that the name 'Mahasthangarh' originated from the name of this Muslim saint. Besides, according to some people, 'Mahasshaman. The name 'Mahasthan' is derived from. According to Hindus, King Parasurama's left wife Shiladevi sat on the banks of Karatoya river and went to Dibyala and since then the place came to be known as 'Mahasthan'. The identity is revealed. Famous historian Dr. Rameshchandra Majumdar said,

high peak of this huge temple exists

 It was then visible from the harbor like a ridge. Today we can only imagine how its beauty, grandeur and solemnity created awe in people's minds.” Bathing place; It is situated 48 meters south-east corner of the outer wall of the Seempur Bihar. It is about 4 meters wide and gradually slopes down to 12.5 meters. The lowest step of the ghat stairs. It was built with limestone. According to a local legend, Sandhyavati, daughter of King Mahidlan used to bathe in this ghat every day. According to local legend, Sandhyavati conceived the famous Satyapir through divine means at this ghat. Accordingly the ghat is also known as Sandhyawati's ghat. Gandheswari temple (Gandheswari temple); The temple is situated 12.2 meters south-west from the bathing ghat. Inside the temple, there was a hall measuring 6.7m x 3.65m and a small room on one side. It is also assumed that there was a system of placing idols around the hall. In front of the temple 7. 31 meters in diameter. The floor of the flat is made of upright bricks. This construction is different from other architectural monuments of Paharpur. Satyapir Bhita: The Bhita is located 122 meters east of the walls of the Seempur Vihar. In fact this vita was a famous 'star temple'. The main temple of Satyapir Vita is south facing and quadrangular. Temple worship. The site faces north and in front of it is a pillared hall. There are 132 offering stacks in the temple premises. Jaina Vihar: There were at least two vihars in Paharpur of Naogaon district. According to an inscription dated 478-79 AD, Jain Guru Acharya Guhanandi built a Jain Vihara at Bot-Gehali or Gayal-Vita of this place. 'Sridharmapala Mahavihara' at Sempur in the latter half of the 8th century was established There is no way of knowing what the topography and shape of the Jain Vihar was. But the design and shape of Dharmapala Vihar is visible. 

Evidence of the existence of a Jain Vihara 

 Paharpur during the reign of the Pala Emperor Dharmapala before the establishment of the Buddhist Saempur Mahavihara is found in copperplate inscriptions. Sempur Mahavihar was established on the ruins of this Vihar. Other patterns (Other relier): Although the Palarajas were Buddhists, they were very liberal and during their reign Buddhists and Hindus lived side by side and progressed gradually. Promoter of Buddhism and culture. Maharaja Dharmapala used to allow Hindu Vedic Yajnas in his kingdom and gave many donations to Brahmins. Evidence of this can be found from the idols of Hindu gods and goddesses found in Paharpur ruins. Among the idols found in these ruins are six-headed bronze idols, Narmundmala etc., reminiscent of 11th century Tantricism. makes Statues of Shiva, Brahma, Vishnu, Ganesha, Vedhisattva, Padmapani, Manjushree and Tara gods and goddesses are notable among the Hindu culture artifacts discovered in Paharpur. The idols found in Paharpur can be divided into three main categories on the basis of different periods and architectural style and artistic excellence. The Ramayana in its first part, Popular stories from Mahabharata and various scenes from Krishna's life are featured. Although these sculptures are immature in terms of construction techniques, their content is indicative of strong religious sentiments and extensive activity. The statues of the second group have a general lifelessness or hardness, but some are smooth. 

There is an impression of mobility

They carry the tradition of the Eastern Guptas. In the images of the third group, the characteristics of the classical Gupta style, such as the natural grace and delicacy of the form of the images, etc., can be observed. Numerous coins have been found in Paharpur Bihar. Most of the coins are of Muslim period. Many coins bear the name of Caliph Harun-Arrashid. Based on this source, many people think that Muslim settlements were established in Bengal long before Khalji or Vijay of Bakhtiar (1204 AD). But probably these coins came to this country as a result of the expansion of trade during the period of the Pala kings. Other coins found here include Sher Shah, Islam Shah, Coins of the period of Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah, Daud Karrani, Emperor Akbar and Sultan Hasan Shah Shaki have been found. Besides, it is of the Pala period. Copper coins were also found. They have Srivigraha script on the top and three matsyas on the reverse. Along with coins, many bracelets have been found here. It is believed that Kodi was used as currency during the Pala period. It is also known from the book 'Tabqat-i-Nasiri' written by the medieval historian Minhaj-i-Siraj, that Baja during the Sen period. Kori was used as currency in the region. Different types of artworks can be seen in the terracotta tiles found here. At least 2800 terracottas have been found here, which appear to date back to the early Pala dynasty. Paharpur remains include various types of earthenware plates, bowls, water pots, cooking utensils, prayers, lamps, stone figures, fragments of ceramics, terracotta plates, earthenware, household implements, jewellery, coins, seals, Copper and inscriptions etc. have been found. Paharpur's original paintings are completely mundane and reflect the simple agricultural life of the people. The deep knowledge and life of these poor village potters about the smallest features of the vast expanse of man and nature. Their reverential concern for the relationship is evident in these plaques. The ruins of Paharpur are replete with royal splendor. More images of everyday life are seen than fine craftsmanship. According to historians, the Pala period. In the fields of education, philosophy, theology, etc., he claimed high status. Various archeological artifacts found in Paharpur establish that claim. In fact, the Sempur Mahavihar is a showcase of Bengali architectural and sculptural talent. Has done, it cannot be compared in the whole of India. Social and historical importance: Paharpur's archaeological artifacts can make a significant contribution to the analysis of the nature of society and civilization in Bengal. Important traces of Buddhist and Hindu civilizations have been found in Paharpur. So it can be said that the influence of Buddhist and Hindu culture in this area was equal or these two cultures influenced the lifestyle of the local people without any major opposition. The culture of Paharpur and Mahasthangarh was the predecessor of the picture of communal coexistence that we see in Bangladesh today. Looking at the ruins of Paharpur, it can be assumed that religion had a lot of influence in the society at that time. 

observed in modern Bangladesh

 Due to the influence of religion in the society of that time, the Nripathis showed interest in setting up such a large size religious temple. Ancient coins found at Paharpur tell us that, Bengal since ancient times. Money economy was prevalent in the society. And the existence of currency economy means social stratification and inequality in the society. Paharpur Paharpur is the most spectacular historical landmark of pre-Islamic period in Bangladesh. Mahavihara was established by King Dharmapala, the second ruler of the Pala dynasty, at a place called Sempur in Varendrabhumi in the 8th century. Its ruins have been discovered at a place called Paharpur under Badalgachi Sadar Upazila of Naogaon district in the northwest of Bangladesh. It is included in UNESCO World Cultural Heritage sites. Such a large Buddhist monastery has not been discovered anywhere else in India till date. It is said that this is the largest single Buddhist monastery in the south of the Himalayas. 40) Naming (Naming). After the destruction of the main temple of Paharpur, he dusted the pile of bricks, Accumulation of soil etc. eventually leads to the formation of a high dune and growth of wild plants, resulting in a deep forest. This is the case in the plains of North Bengal. Local people started calling it as 'Paharpur' after seeing the hill covered with forest. Discovery (Discover). The ruins of the monastery were first noticed by Buchanan Hamilton in 1807 and 1812. Later, Westmacott, then District Magistrate of Dinajpur district visited it. In 1879, Sir Alexander Cuningham (Sir Alexander Cuningham) visited the place and wanted to dig. But he could not do so due to the obstruction of the local Bolihar zamindar. Later in 1923. Department of Archaeological Survey of India, Barendra Research Society and Calcutta University joint initiative and Professor D. And, Extensive excavations were started here under the supervision of Bhandarkar. Later in 1925-26 Rakhal Das Banerjee started excavations. After that, excavations were carried out here in different stages till 1990-91. Archaeological Relics Somapura Bihar: It is the largest Buddhist temple located in the Indian subcontinent.