The Humanitarian Reforms and Grandmothers System

The Humanitarian Reforms and Grandmothers System

The Humanitarian Reforms and Grandmothers System

Firaj Shah Tughlaq introduced many humanitarian reforms, which is known as motherhood system. Marriage and employment agencies are among them. He arranged marriages for poor and helpless Muslim girls and created a separate department called 'Dewan-Ikhyarat' to provide for orphans and widows. The job department was set up to provide jobs to the unemployed. The Sultan established a hospital called 'Bimaristan' to provide free medical treatment and medicines to the sick. Distribution of free food and medicine was one of the features of this hospital. Military Reform: Based on the feudal system, the Sultan built his military division. Instead of paying the regular soldiers in cash, he arranged for the jagir and irregular soldiers to be paid from the treasury. For those who do not get any jagir or salary, the revenue is considered as salary. His army consisted of 90,000 cavalry. To the satisfaction of the army, he issued the order that when a soldier in Kona grows old and incapacitated, his son will inherit as a representative. if there is no son-in-law, the slave will represent him. If there is no slave, close relatives should also be employed. You can. Military power is weakened by the recognition of such hereditary interests in the military. Slave Division: Firaj Shah built a huge slave division. During his time there were 160,000 slaves. Of these, about twelve thousand slaves in the court became skilled by being engaged in various tasks. Slaves. A new department called 'Dewan-i-Bandegan' was set up for maintenance. He nurtured them with the love of a son. The Sultan adopted a liberal policy towards the prisoners of war in order to attract them to Islam without killing them unnecessarily. Although this system is humane, it increases government spending. As a result, there was a financial crisis in the state and these slaves became a threat to the Delhi Sultanate. Patronage of education and culture: The Sultan was a patron of science and art. He respected scholars and ulama. The Sultan himself was a scholar, so he established maktabs and madrasas in major cities to spread education. He had a deep passion for history. During his time, under the patronage of Ziauddin Barani and Shams-i-Siraj Afif Sultan, he was inspired to write historical books. The Islamic Madrasa established in Firazabad became one of the centers of Islamic studies and science. Architectural passion: He had a special interest in architecture and city building. He established Hisar Firaza, Fatehabad Firajapur, Firazaabad in Delhi and Jaunpur in Uttar Pradesh. The Kali, Kalan, Khirki Mosque in Delhi and the Shah Alam Samadhi Mosque in Timurpur bear the signature of his architecture. Begumpuri Mosque, Bath-house named House-i-Khas, tomb of Firaj Shah were also built. He also renovated some old palaces and monuments. He set up many factories as he was keen on setting up factories. Does. He improved the standard of living by setting up about 36 factories. Public Works: The reign of Firaj Shah Tughlaq became famous for his public works. He established marriage office and job office for the welfare of the people. New cities were built and industrial factories were set up. Improves the quality of life. He built mosques, madrasas, inns, dug wells and built bridges all over the empire. He built a hospital called Bimaristan to provide medical care to the poor and provided free medical care. Four more such hospitals were built in other cities as well. He dug another canal to improve agriculture and built about 1200 gardens to fill the food shortage with his income. In this way, the Sultan made his regime memorable by his benevolent deeds.

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Firaj Shah's last life and death

The last life of Sultan Firaj Shah Tughlaq was not spent happily. His minister. Khan Jahan Maqbool gradually became powerful. In addition, the deaths of the eldest son Fateh Khan and the second son Zafar Khan shattered both the body and mind of Firaj Tughlaq. As a result, extreme weakness was observed in the central government. The weakness of the central government led to anarchy and turmoil in various parts of the empire before the death of the sultan. The sultan passed away in 136 AD, handing over power to his grandson Tughlaq Khan amidst the chaos of the empire. Character and Achievements of Firozshah. Firaj Shah Tughlaq is one of the leading personalities in history. Historians have evaluated him in many ways. Indian historians praise Firaj Shah as the most kind, helpful and just ruler after Nasiruddin. Has done. Henry Elliott and Elphinstone called Sultan Firaj Shah the 'Akbar of the Sultanate'. Has done. But V. A. Contrary to this, Smith said, "There can be no comparison between Akbar and Firaj Shah.


Whatever the opinion of historians, there is no doubt that Firaj Shah was one of the best rulers in the history of India. He did not lack enthusiasm for the moral and material advancement of the people. He expanded his business by digging canals and irrigating and improving tariffs to improve agriculture. He relieved the people. He was a refuge for the helpless, the poor and the orphans. Establishment of marriage and employment department, construction of Aturashram for the destitute and poor bears the mark of his prajavatsalya. But he is a military leader. Could not identify eligibility. Especially in the Bengal campaign his military weakness was reflected. He was a devout Muslim. He ruled according to the instructions of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. Barely obeying the instructions, he resorted to unintentional oppression and intolerance on non-Muslim subjects in various cases. Although historians have suggested that he did not intend to persecute her, he is a pragmatist. It can be understood through work.


The signature of talent as a producer

As on Madrasas, mosques, gardens, inns in different parts of the empire. And his great love for architecture by building large cities. He also has many wise men. Donated patronage.

After all, in his opinion, a kind, benevolent and just ruler is rare in history. Sir Wilsley Hague. Praising Fitchbaj Shah, he said, “Firaz's reign before the reign of Akbar was Muslim in India. It brings an end to the most glorious rule of the regime. " Criticism of the reforms of Sultan Firaz and his role in the downfall of the Tughlaq dynasty


Blamed for the downfall of the dynasty

The Humanitarian Reforms and Grandmothers System

First, although Firaj Shah was a popular sultan, he could not defend the foundation of the throne. He was a complete failure in suppressing the rebellion and chaos of the society. By avoiding the policy of expansion of the kingdom, he pushed for destruction instead of defending the empire. Second, his other big mistake was the reintroduction of the feudal system. As a result, the aristocracy became powerful and the power of the central government was weakened. V, D, Mahajan said, “Giving big lands is a danger. And in the end, it led to the downfall of the Tughlaq Empire.


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