The Egyptians' Contributions to Ancient Civilization

The Egyptians Contributions to Ancient Civilization

The Egyptians' Contributions to Ancient Civilization

The Middle Dynasty began with the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty. The best king of this dynasty was Nehapetra

(Neb-Hapetra). He removed the conflict and brought Gaeta Egypt under a central government. However, the true revival and renaissance began during the Twelfth Dynasty, when Egypt ascended to the highest peak of power and prosperity. Therefore, in the history of ancient Egypt, the period of the twelfth dynasty is called the Golden Age. Some of the famous pharaohs of this dynasty are 1st Amenhotep, 1st Cestris, 2nd Cestris, 3rd Amenhotep. Etc. 

The Twelfth Dynasty fell through a revolution of peasants, artisans, and slaves in 16 BC. On that occasion, during the thirteenth dynasty, the West Asian nomadic Hicks (called the Shepherd King) invaded Egypt and occupied Egypt. They ruled Egypt for about 200 years. They are the ones who introduced the horse and horse-drawn war chariots in Egypt. Finally, Ahmose I, the founder of the 16th dynasty, expelled the Hicks from Egypt in 1563 BC, establishing a new dynasty in Egypt.

The era of the new dynasty is called the era of imperialism. Because in this era the Egyptians adopted the policy of conquering the country. Thutmose III was the greatest and most powerful king of the 16th dynasty. This. Another powerful king of the dynasty was Amenhotep III. Later Tutankhamen, 2nd Ramses, 3rd. Egypt lost its existence in external invasions due to the absence of a powerful pharaoh after Ramses, and the empire's internal governance weakened. Through various changes, Egypt finally came under Persian rule in 525 BC.

2Ancient Egyptian Governance The influence of the priesthood 

divinity was evident in the ancient Egyptian system of government. The Egyptian kings ruled the kingdom as sub representatives, and the dynasty was hereditary to proclaim the king to be the son of the sun god Re. He was a judge of the Supreme Court and the chief director of the military

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The contribution of the Egyptians to ancient civilization 

Religion: The influence of religion on the ancient Egyptian way of life was immense. They are the first of the ancient nations. Introduces religion. Their religious concepts vary from polytheism to monotheism at different times. Rotated. The gods and goddesses were mainly symbols of natural energy. The chief deity of the Egyptians was the sun god Re. Later, after the capital was established at Thebes, the name of the sun god was changed to Amon or Amon Re. Osiris was known as the god of natural energy and the god of the Nile. Egyptians. The idea is that these two powerful gods govern the entire universe. Allegedly, Osiris is his jealous allowance. When Seth is killed and his body is dismembered, his wife Isis collects them. Add. Thus Osiris was revived, and it was from this idea that the ancient Egyptians believed in revival. This is why they tried to immortalize the soul-bearing body in the form of a mummy after death. In the religious life of the ancient Egyptians, the influence of ‘ba’ meaning soul and ‘ka’ meaning coward (body) was greatest. After death. ‘Ba’ disappeared and took refuge in Kaya or ‘Ka’. It was from this idea that the pyramids were built in Egypt. In rebirth. Believing that, they used to bury various food and utensils with the dead body. With this belief. = Involved in the trial of the dead and their punishment or reward.

When the Purahitatantra once took the form of an extreme dictatorship, Emperor Amenhotep IV started a religious reform movement in 1385 BC. He expelled the priests from the temple, forbade the worship of the goddess, and ordered his subjects to worship a new god, Aton. Matching the name of the deity, he gave his name Ikhnaton. Thus he was the first in the history of the world to propagate the idea of ​​monotheism. At a later stage, 800 years later, the Jews revived the doctrine. 

Philosophy: The philosophy of the Egyptians was associated with many religions. However, free thought was not limited to religion. The identity of their mindfulness is found in the writings of priests and sages. For example, in an inscription called Memphite Drama. They believed in the eternal universe. Their philosophy based on moral principles was well known in history as the Maxims of Ptahhotep. Examples of the philosophical practices of this period are found in the ‘Songs of the Harp-player’ and the eloquent peasant testimonies. (The Plea of ​​the Eloquent Peasant).

Writing system: An important contribution of the Egyptians to human civilization was the invention of color-based hieroglyphics. In the beginning, they used to express their thoughts through special symbols like pictures. Later it developed. The Egyptian writing system is known as 'Hieroglyphic', which means sacred script.

There were 24 symbols in this system. Each sign signified a special meaning. Each of the symbols can be used to express thoughts by forming words or sentences. From ancient times the hieroglyphic writing system has taken three forms in terms of its character format. For example- Pictographic, Syllabic, and Alphabetic. There are three types of writing systems found in ancient Egypt. Hieroglyphic or hieroglyphic method in the first stage, hieratic or fast writing style of trade and trade in the first stage and demotic, which. Used by the general public. Hieroglyphic inscriptions are first engraved on stone and wooden utensils, plaques, or graves. Later it was written on papyrus. About 750 hieroglyphic symbols are used in the ancient Egyptian script.

Literature: Egyptian literature was mainly based on philosophy and religion. The twelfth dynasty is the classical age of Egyptian literature. | Is called. Memphite Drama, the Royal Hem of Echinaton, is an impeccable creation of Egyptian literature. | The first deals with the sun god Ray and the second deals with monotheism introduced by Ikhnaton. Besides. Of particular note are the Book of the Dead and the Tale of the Two Brothers.

Science: The ancient Egyptians made outstanding contributions to various branches of science, especially mathematics and astronomy. Mathematics originated from the method of calculation invented by the agrarian Egyptians for the calculation of production and world income and expenditure. They were the first to invent geometry and arithmetic. They mastered the methods of YAG, big, and big. Knowing the decimal calculation, the idea of ​​fractions was less. Knowledge of geometry was essential for building a pyramid. They first discovered angles, rectangles, and hexagons. To control flooding, the ancient Egyptians had to keep an eye on the stars. The origin of astronomy is from this observation. They made a zodiac calendar. They calculated 365 days and 1 year. They divided the year into months and months into days. Medical and ancient Egyptians were initially superstitious in medicine, but a document dating back to 1600 BC shows that they later demonstrated medical expertise and originated in the eyes, teeth, and spleen. The ancient Egyptians had an idea about the functions of the heart, the movement of the pulse. First | Materia Medica they formulate. Proof of their amazing talent in surgery is the making of corpse mummies.

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Craftsmanship: The ancient Egyptians displayed outstanding achievements in the field of art. Art is an idea for art. Was not among them. The influence of religion, philosophy, social politics, etc. is reflected in the works of art. Patterns of lively, realistic, and rich art can be found in their pyramids, temples, sculptures, and other works of art. Architecture or construction. The Egyptians are said to be the best builders in the world for their outstanding contributions to the industry.

The Egyptians' Contributions to Ancient Civilization

Pyramid: The pyramid is one of the unique wonders of ancient Egypt. The word pyramid in Greek means 'very high'. The pyramid hall is a huge and triangular mausoleum made of stone. So far, more than 60 pyramid ruins.

Has been discovered, which has survived for more than 60 years There is. The largest and tallest of the pyramids is the famous Pharaoh Khufu (2700-270 BC) pyramid in the Giza region of the Nile. The pyramid is made of 2.3 million pieces of limestone on 13 acres of land and is 461 feet or 146 meters high. In the 20 years of efforts of one lakh artisans and workers.

It is built, The ancient Egyptians believed that there is life after death; He needed the leadership of the pharaohs in his life. The ancient Egyptians thought that the dead would one day rise again. From this idea, they used to make mummies keep the body of the dead person fresh. The Egyptians built the pyramids for this purpose. In addition, the pyramid was built as a symbol of political, social, and religious influence and prestige. 

Banmandar: In the era of the Middle Dynasty and Empire, instead of a pyramid, a huge and impeccably decorated temple. Is named. These are the embodiments of Egypt's national power and the culture that has developed in the afterlife. Mandar also proves the superiority of art. There are many such huge temples in Karnak, Luxor, Phila, and Abu Simbel. There are. These temples are characterized by rows of Sphinx statues on either side and pharaohs on the front, lotus flowers. Pillars in the shape of palm trees, wonderful excavation work, and sloping walls in front. 

Sculpture: Sculpture was developed in ancient Egypt as an essential part of architecture. There are ornaments at the entrances of tombs, shrines, palaces, and sculptures on the inner walls. He cut huge stones and made all the beautiful sculptures. The sculpture ‘Sphinx’ carved out of the hill was a marvelous creation in terms of grandeur and convenience. This sculpture was the epitome of Pharaoh's nobility and power. The body of the Sphinx was in the shape of a lion and the head was that of a pharaoh. The most striking example of Egyptian sculpture is the statue of Pharaoh Ramses


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