most glorious contribution of Ramans in history of civilization of law

most glorious contribution of Ramans in history of civilization of law

most glorious contribution of Ramans in history of civilization of law

This law was created out of fear of conventional customs and logic. In the early days, their jurisdiction was governed by oral law. The first Roman law was compiled in 1250 bronze leaves in 450-04. Although this law recognized equality, it was incomplete. So in the era of empire the law is greatly improved. During the reign of Emperor Augustus and his successors. Many extensions of this law are based on the views of the future. Gradually three branches of Roman law developed. These are 1. Civil law (Jus Civile): These laws were to be observed for the citizens of Raman. Written here

Both unwritten and unwritten laws can be observed. | 2. The law of the people (Jus Gentium): protection of the rights of all citizens irrespective of race, religion, caste, recognition of slavery

Provided, was made to assist foreigners in the trial. | 3. Jus Natural: This law is based on the Stoic doctrine that all people are natural.

The government does not have the power to violate their fundamental right to equal and innate gain. Cicero.

Was the father of this law. | This law was later amended considering the needs of the people. In fact, the law of Raman. Was neutral, generous, humane, and especially sympathetic to slaves. The main teaching of this law was,. Every human being is born free. The misconceptions of the Roman law were abolished during the reign of the Roman emperor Hadrian in 131 AD and were finally compiled in the time of the Byzantine emperor Justinian.

Compilation of Emperor Theodora II I-Gula in 438 BC. Robinian compiled the strict law into 4 volumes. Here are some of the kingdoms of the rulers and Justinian

The emperor Theodorus II took the initiative to record the law of Raman, but by compiling the scattered Rams, the first Jacinian became the best lawmaker in the world. His 99. * (Robinian) formed a 10-member law commission. This commission is the whole ram. To compile. Regular halal- 

(i) Codex Justinian's: The customary law of the empire, the former. Some of the decrees of the Pom King and Justinian were reformed and enacted into law. 

(ii) Digenmadect: A brief law containing footnotes has been recorded in this text. 

(iii) Institutes: Institutes was a modified and modified version of Pigest in Codex. Corpus Juri, a textbook for students.

(Iv) The Novels:'The Novels' is a compilation of the ordinances which he issued during the reign of Emperor Justinian, and the laws which he enacted.

And the Roman law was compiled by Justinian in medieval Europe, North Africa, and West Asia.

"He was. Moreover, in the development of Muslim law and the formulation of international law, who is the law of Raman

Despite the criticism

Debt in certain cases.

The Hellenistic Greeks Contributions to Civilization


Cultural Ayyam al-Jahiliyah, Political, Social, Religious, Economic & Condition of Arabia in Pre-Islamic Era. Literally, it means ‘Age of Ignorance’ or ‘An of Barbarism’ (me of ignorance or barbarism). Overall, it can be said that in pre-Islamic Arabia, when there was no Kasti 1 scripture or subtle religious consciousness or system, the guide, the time was called ignorance in Ayam. Goes. Historical p. K. Hitti (Philip Khuri Hitti) said in the context- "The term jahiliyah, usually rendered time of ignorance 'or' barbarism ', in reality, means the period in which Arabia had no dispensation, no inspired prophet, no revealed book." That is, the word ignorance usually refers to the 'age of ignorance' or barbarism. But in reality, this word refers to a time when there were no rules in any corner of Arabia. There were no inspired preachers, there were no revealed scriptures. The duration and extent of Jahiliyyah in Ayam: About the duration and space of Jahiliyyah in Ayam. There is disagreement among historians. Some historians think that it started from Hazrat Adam (AS). The long period till the prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) is called ignorance in Ayam. This doctrine. Not acceptable. Because in this long period of time Allah has sent many prophets and messengers to guide the misguided people. For. They have guided people to the right path. There is debate as to how acceptable this idea is. Arab. According to historians, the period from the death of Jesus (pbuh) to the time before the advent of Islam is called ignorance in Ayam. This doctrine is not beyond debate. European historian R. A. Nicholson (Reynold | Alleyne Nicholson) in the period of a century before the advent of Islam (510-610 AD). Called. Professor P. K. Hitty, however, supports this doctrine.

In several verses of the Holy Qur'an ("They did not say anything else, they just said, 'O exaggeration, do not show it to us.' However, the Hejaz and Nejad in Central Arabia

In some verses (3: 146, 5:55, 33:33, 46:28) there is mention of ignorance in the verse. E.g.

Lonnie- just said, O our Lord! Forgive us our sins and all that is with us. "

Establish prayers, pay zakat and obey Allah and His Messenger. ” The Ephraimites used to pass the stubbornness of Mukhtayuga in their hearts. Then God is in his time

 But it is not known whether it spread to the whole of the Arabian Peninsula.

The Hejaz and Nejad provinces and the Nufud region were underdeveloped and superstitious; Of civilization in the modern sense. Couldn't get there. For this reason, this region can be considered as the field of the age of ignorance.

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Political Condition of Arabia in Pre-Islamic Era

Political Condition of Arabia in Pre-Islamic Era

Rule: In the pre-Islamic era, almost all Arab countries were independent except for a few territories. The central corner was not ruled or the Arabs were divided into different factions; such as Banu Bakr, Banu Taglib, etc. The Arabs were again divided according to the nature of the land; Namely, the permanent resident of the city and the nomadic Bedouin. Although the political situation of the urban Arabs was relatively good, the political situation of the desert nomads was not consolidated. However, they were respectful and loyal to the rules of their respective guitars and

NONS SOINS activities are managed.

Method of inclusion in Gatre

Method of inclusion in Gatre

The same slave of blood is related to that family and is called 'Maula'. Time in the corner again

This method: In addition to the blood relationship, other members could also be involved. Kona family released. He could live independently in that place by being related to. He is a member of that family.

That. Once in a while, the newcomer sucks a little blood of Gaetra's team leader or together. Bay could have been a member of that group. The member involved in this method is known as 'Al-Dakhil'. In danger. Whose help was it, on the other hand, it was Graeter's responsibility to protect them. Jati: Gaetrapriti or ‘Arabia’ was the main inspiration of the Bedouin Arabs. Loyalty and solidarity towards one's self are found in their love of love. One of the charan poets said in his song, "At that time, Graeter's B was so strong on the members that in any case, the husband could leave his wife in need of Gaiter." Bloody clashes between quarrelsome Arab ghettos centered on water canals, meadows, cattle ranches. Clashes in the corners continued for a long time. These quarrels are commonly known as ‘Ayam-al-Arab’ or the days of the Arabs. Notable battles of this period include the battle of Bias between the Aus and Khazraj guitars in Medina, the battle of Al-Fizar between the Quraish and Hawazin guitars, and the battle of Banu Bakr and Banu Taghlib guitar. The forty-year-long battle of Harb-al-Basus took place in between. Historian Edward Gibbon said, However, sometimes injured or killed a person. This is called Al Diyat Blood Money, which is paid to the family as compensation.

Tribal Head or Sheikh

Tribal Head or Sheikh

The leader or chief of the Arab tribe is called 'Sheikh'. Sheiks age, courage, military. He was elected in a democratic manner on the basis of merit, intelligence, financial solvency, education, and initiation. War. The Sheikh's decision was the main one in terms of the treaty, trade relations, etc. 

Katrina Republic / Alliance: A Gatriya Democracy / Alliance was formed in pre-Islamic Arabia under the leadership of Mecca for the protection of mutual interests. An agreement was signed with the Arab ghettos by the business community of Makkah, known as 'Olaf'. According to the Persian Arab historian Balajuri, similarly, various peace treaties were concluded with the kingdoms of neighboring Syria, Yemen, Amman, etc., thus establishing a genuine democracy/alliance in Arabia. Makkah Al-Mala or Consultative Meeting: There was a political organization or consultative meeting called 'Al-Mala' to balance the conflicting factions of Makkah. This council had no executive power, it could only give advice. Of course, there were different departments to handle different types of work; such as 

(a) Rifadah: supply of provisions for pilgrims, 

(b) Sikadah: supply of essential drinks to pilgrims, 

(c) Nasi: provision of adjustment between solar and lunar years, 

(d) Liwa: Carrying flags during the war. The room where the council meeting was held was called 'Darul Nadwa'. Rule of law: In the absence of a specific government structure, rule, or judiciary, the Arabs adopted the policy of 'Might is right. They believed in the principle of blood for blood, eyes for eyes, teeth for teeth. Sometimes it is the killer who pays the victim's family compensation or 'Al Diyat' (Blood Money). Could be freed

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