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The Hebrew Civilization & Hellenic Greeks' Contributions to Civilization

The Hebrew Civilization & Hellenic Greeks Contributions to Civilization

   The Hebrew Civilization & Hellenic Greeks' Contributions to Civilization


Hebrew Civilization The Hebrew Civilization

(10) Origin of the Hebrew Nation: It is difficult to give any definite information about the original names of the Hebrews. According to a common tradition, the Hebrew name comes from the name ‘Khabiru’ or ‘Habiru’. This is the name given to the enemy by the Hebrews. Meaning foreign, low-income, or nomadic. According to another source, the Hebrew name comes from 'Ever' or 'Eber'. They may have been named 'Hebrew', meaning nomads because they came from the other side of the river Euphrates.
The aborigines were in Arabia.
The geographical location of the Hebrew civilization: Probably in 1600 BC, a group of Hebrews led by their ancestor Abraham or Hazrat Ibrahim (AS) left their homeland and settled in Mesopotamia. Later, under the leadership of Abraham's son Jacob or Hazrat Yaqub (AS), they moved west and occupied Canaan or Palestine and settled there permanently. The journey of the ancient Hebrew civilization began around the holy city of Palestine (Palestine) in West Asia. The country is in the north. Ancient Phenicia and present-day Lebanon; Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the east, and the Mediterranean to the west.


The Political History of the Hiccups

The Political History of the Hiccups


The history of the Hiccups from Abraham to 105 BC is known in the Old Testament, the first part of the Hebrew Bible. Abraham, who is mentioned in the Torah as the founder of the Jewish nation, may have been 1900 or 1800.
A group of Jews and Arabs first moved to northwestern Mesopotamia and then to
Jacob, the son of the deceased, established modern Palestine with them. Jacob's well-known name. According to Israel, they continue to be known as Israelis. If there is a famine in Palestine. Arrived at Gare and was forced into slavery by the Pharaohs in 1600 BC. Later they're new. The Hebrews were liberated under the leadership of Moses or Hazrat Musa (AS) and came to the Sinai Peninsula. He built a new house. The Messiah did not only unite the Hebrew nation but also the monotheistic Zehaver. (Jehovah) attracts worship. In 1025 BC, the Hebrews took over the leadership of the popular leader Saul and then developed an advanced civilization with the organizational skills of the warlord David or Hazrat Dawood (AS). David's. After his death, his son Solomon or Hazrat Sulaiman (AS) became the Hebrew emperor. King Solomon, a wise, prudent, and brilliant man, made important contributions to the development of the Hebrew civilization. After Solomon's death, the Hebrew nation fell, and the empire split. Finally in 622 BC this empire. Occupied by the Assyrians, and in 56 BC, Judah was ruled by the Chaldean king Nebuchadnezzar.
With the fall of this civilization. Avid. The contribution of the Hebrews to civilization. Administration: Although not at an early stage, at one time the Hebrews were persuaded to build strong administrative systems. David, a ruler with the qualities of political leadership, introduced a system of the central government. King Solomon strengthened the central structure and divided the empire into 12 provinces. He established a Jewish civil service and introduced a system of taxation that allowed the rich to pay higher taxes and the poorer to pay less.


Religion: The contribution of the Hebrews in the development of religious ideas in human civilization is immense. They were the first in the history of the world to spread the idea of ​​monotheism. In this case Hazrat Musa (AS), Hazrat Dawood (AS) and. The religious thought of Hazrat Saleyaman (AS) is noteworthy. The Torah or the Old Testament is their scripture. Historical. Its value as a literary book is universally acknowledged. There are 39 texts written in this book from 750 BC to 150 AD. The book has been inserted. According to the Hebrews, the god Zehava was their only god. Their religion is basically five stages, namely: Musapurva level, specific deity level, Prophet's arrival level, foreign-influenced level, and Persian influenced level. Beyond that, the concept of monotheism finally developed. But in the place of the formless God of Islam, Zehava. The Hebrews thought of a monotheistic being. 


Brief Political History of the Raemans

Philosophy: In the history of world civilization, before the Greeks, the Hebrews had a wonderful philosophy. Their philosophy gave new ideas about people and life. The early philosophy of the Hebrews is known from the Old Testament Book of Proverbs and Apocryphal Book of Ecclesiasticus. According to Hebrew philosophy, the universe is an instrument that rotates without a specific destination. According to them, it is not acceptable for a man to be guided by destiny and to have no evidence for the existence of a post-mortem soul or life. Hebrew philosophy states that human fame, wealth, happiness, etc., is a trap and its consequences occur through a delusion. 


Literature: Hebrew literature was far superior to any other work of literature in the East. Patterns of their literary work can be found in the Old Testament. Apart from religion, the main themes of Hebrew literature are heroism, war music, and prophecy. Solomon's music is a famous love story in Hebrew literature. He also wrote The Book of Job and King David's Book of Psalms. In these literary works, events of monarchy, dramatic stories of governance, position and character of women, morality, contempt for evil deeds, etc. have found a place. Law: The Hebrews also have a significant contribution to make in lawmaking. Their laws are ancient Canaanite and Babylonian. Although influenced by law, it had a number of advanced and epoch-making trends. The fifth book of the Old Testament, the Book of Deuteronomy, has been written about their law. That is why this law is called Deuteronomy Code. This law contains the concept of punishment and direction regarding the emancipation of slaves, fine justice, generosity, generosity, duties, and responsibilities of judges and government employees, interest, debt, sorcery, etc. Art and architecture: Evidence of the Hebrew skill in this field is found in some of the specimens of art and architecture. The mighty King Solomon turned Jerusalem into a prosperous city. Until his greatest achievement, the Solomon's Temple was destroyed by Herod, it was a marvel of art. The Dead Sea Scroll, discovered in 1948, and the documents of the Desert Sea, and some of the pictorial seals found in Jerusalem, indicate Hebrew painting skills. Inside a cave, fifty Hebrew inscriptions on leather in pottery testify to the existence of a religious group in the area from 130 to 7 BC.


Greek civilization: The Greek Civilization ‘Greek’ (Greek) name was given to the Romans. Modern Greece with its numerous islands and the inhabitants and language of the country is known as Greek. The people of ancient Greece, through their brilliant time-honored activities, have created a tradition that is one of the most memorable chapters in the history of the world and civilization. In fact ancient Greek civilization
During the reign of Alexander the Great, the ruler of Macedonia, the borders of this civilization crossed Greece into modern Egypt. It spread to Palestine, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Iran, and even India. Political Evolution of Ancient Greece: Reviewing the Political History of Ancient Greece, the period from the beginning of civilization to its fall can be divided into two parts (1) Hellenic Age and (2) Hellenistic Age. (1) Hellenic Age: The beginning of the Hellenic Age from the formation of Greek civilization. Original after the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Hellenic civilization is the name given to the Greek hero Helen, the son of their god Deucalion, who traveled over 45,000 square miles of the Greek peninsula and the main city of Athens. The Greeks claimed to be descendants of Helen and called their country Hellas. That is why this civilization is known as Hellenic civilization. The period of this civilization is from the middle of the thirteenth century BC to 336 BC. The Homeric Era (1200 BC to 600 BC) is one of the two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, written by the famous Greek epic poet Homer. The idea of ​​the history of the era is found. Hence this period is called the Hemorrhoid era. In this age the people were divided into two classes - the upper class consisted of priests and aristocrats and the lower class consisted of peasants. Craftsmen and day laborers. Although there was a village community at the beginning of this era, around 600 BC through the Klan organization. After breaking them down, a complete state is formed around each region. Thus the Greek city-state originated. Although many such city-states existed in ancient Greece, they played a leading role. The military city-state of Sparta and the democratic city-state of Athens.

State formation: The Greeks united from 600 BC to form the rural society. At this time the city-states of Athens, Thebes, Megara, Sparta, Milan, etc. were formed. These were surrounded by fortified forts.


Characteristics of Greek city-states 

The Hebrew Civilization & Hellenic Greeks' Contributions to Civilization

These city-states were small in size. Most of the states were mountainous. They formed on the banks of the Adriatic, Mediterranean, and Aegean seas. Some of the features of this city-state are as follows: The population of small city-states ranged from 10/15 thousand to 60/70 thousand. Big according to Sparta and Athens
The population of the cities was about 4 lakhs. The circumference of Sparta was 4,000 square miles and the circumference of Athens was 

1. Thousands of square miles. 

2. Each city-state had a colony and in its own process religion, philosophy, literature, and culture. Aegean
Such a colony was formed in the sea. 

3. Although there is internal strife among the city-states when attacked by an external enemy, they collectively become enemies.
Used to 

4. In these city-states, first the monarchy, then the democracy developed in the 6th-5th century BC. 

5. Athens was a democracy and Sparta was a dictatorship. The inhabitants of Sparta are magicians
He was good at sports. Every male child is compulsorily enlisted in the military at the age of six
Hate to give. They used to organize sports competitions called 'Olympics' to protect national unity among themselves. . They made outstanding contributions to science.

The renovation Establishment of Hazare Aswad

Military city-state Sparta

The Hebrew Civilization & Hellenic Greeks' Contributions to Civilization

The city-state Sparta (cultivated or sown land) emerges with an exceptional feature.
The Spartans were anti-democratic and anti-progressive. From the point of view of state structure, sometimes aristocratic, sometimes autocratic. Having been at war with the Mycenaeans for centuries, their character became warlike. The whole city was like a military barracks. Prisoners of war were killed in Banana, also known as Helot. Military education was compulsory for all except the weak and sick children. There was little opportunity to develop art, literature, and culture in order to suppress the rebellion and engage in self-defense. Democratic city-state Athens: The city-state is named after the goddess Athena, the presiding deity of the state. This city-state played a major role in the development of Greek civilization. This is the first democracy in the history of the world. That is why Greece is called the birthplace of democracy. However, it was achieved through a long journey of the reform movement. Classified The pioneers of the reform movement for the realization of the rights of the common people in Athenian society were Salon, Clintinis, Pericles, and others. However, the full development of democracy took place during the reign of Pericles (481 BC-429 BC). He formalized democracy by involving the people in administration, law, and justice. The animosity between Sparta and Athens is due to the fact that they are located side by side. At one point they got involved in a war. Successively from 480 BC to 404 BC. Three Melanesian wars took place and Athens was finally defeated. This defeat marked the end of the Hellenic period.
Bide as the god of music and youth
Hellenic-Greek contribution to civilization. The Hellenic Greeks' Contributions to Civilization 


Religion: Worshiping the Hellenic Gods
The people who ate non-poison were afraid of hundreds of horns. Their main and most powerful force was Zeus (Cents) who was also the god of the sky and Elasti. The sun god Apollo (Cess,
That groom was also considered a god. The goddess of right and left was the virgin Athena (Ak)
The 3rd-century goddess was Aphrodite (whrodite). Besides, the names of other deities are also found. Such as the god of the sea "Singan, the god of the forest Sator, the god of Barner Nimak, the god of war Aras, the angel Hanes, the pot god Hades. Priests used to conduct religious activities around the temple. Since the PDP was prominent among them, beautiful idols were kept in the temples. But no poet or philosopher was a believer in monotheism.


Philosophy: Hellenics presents a rich philosophy by thinking about the origin, development, and various causal factors of the universe. The foremost figure in this field was the philosopher Thales of Silatus (c. 638-546 BC), who gave a scientific explanation of the eclipse. While thinking about the origin and evolution of the earth and man, a class of rationalist philosophers, known as Sophists, appeared.
Hellenic philosophers of Greek truth were able to inspire and influence young people with scientific explanations and arguments. The most famous and influential philosopher of this genre was Socrates of Athens (c. 480-399 BC). Establish democracy, differentiate between right and wrong, build honest citizens. Etc. was the main subject of his philosophy. Socrates' student Plato (428-364 BC) and Plato's student Aristotle (364-322 BC) have made outstanding contributions to Greek philosophy. Plato, in his famous book The Republic, has combined the thoughts of Socrates, his initiator, with the philosophy of state and the dialogues of Socrates. Aristotle also explained his political philosophy in his book 'Politics'.


Literature: The imaginative Greek nation has also enriched the repertoire of literature. The epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, now considered by the Greeks to be scriptures, are now popular with literary lovers. Asia | The destruction of the city of Troy (now Turkey) in Minor, the heroism of the Greek warriors, the descriptions of various deities are recorded in this epic. Later, the addition of shaky music (elegy) to Greek literature created a new trend.


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