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Foundation of Muslim Rule in India

Foundation of Muslim Rule in India

Foundation of Muslim Rule in India

The emergence of Islam in the early 7th century ushered in a great revolution in Arab life and soon Arab Muslims became a significant force in religion, politics, trade, and culture. The second caliph of Islam, Hazrat Omar was sent from 634 to 644 AD, the first and third caliph Hazrat Ushman from 644 to 656 AD. A new chapter was added to the whole of North Africa by his deserving general Musa bin Nusayr and his general Tareq bin Ziad Spain. The Muslims conquered the Indus in 712 AD under the leadership of a young general and his son-in-law Muhammad bin Qasim. 

The Ghajini dynasty, the extinct Turkish dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Syed dynasty, the Lodi dynasty, and the reign of the last Mughal kings are known as Muslim rule in India.

The seeds of Muslim rule sown by Muhammad bin Qasim in India came to an end in 1857 with the defeat of the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah by the British. 


Introduction to India

Foundation of Muslim Rule in India

India is generally known as the Indian subcontinent, south of Asia. India is called a subcontinent because of its vast population and natural diversity. Historians differ on the naming of India. The country has been named India Year

According to some sources, the word Sindhu in ancient Persian literature is mentioned both in Hind and Sand. Some say that the name India is derived from the English Indus of the river Indus. Some people say that the use of the word Hindustan from the Hindu word was mainly due to the fact that India was the main Hindu country and Muslims called it Hindustan and the name is still widely used in medieval Muslim countries. India has been referred to as Hindustan as the homeland of the Hindus which is still well known as the homeland of the Hindus and is still known as Hindustan.

The geographical location of India

The geographical location of India

India is equal in size to the continent of Europe. Northeast west and northeast of the Himalayas Mountains South Indian Ocean East Myanmar West West Persia and Arabian Sea Present Bangladesh India Pakistan Pakistan Nepal Bhutan About one-fifth of the world's population India is a geographically diverse region. Centrally located in central India, the Binda Mountains have divided the country into two unequal parts.

Contribution of Sumerian civilization in science and technology

Anthropological evolution in India

Anthropological evolution in India

Dravidians are the oldest inhabitants of India and then Aryan hobby Kushan people come to India in stages. According to many, There are more than 2,000 dialects in India today. That is why Irish historian Vincent Smith called the Indian subcontinent a museum. Historians believe that the Middle Ages in India began with the expansion of the era to the end of the Mughal rule. Pakistan was divided through the great war of liberation of Bengalis Thus, the Indian subcontinent is now divided into three countries, India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan.


The state of northwestern India on the eve of the Arab conquest of Indus and Multan

Politics in India

Politics in India

India had no political unity before the Arab-Muslim conquest The history of ancient India shows that the Mauryan emperor Ashoka was able to establish political unity in India from 273 to 232 AD, but after his death in 232 AD, India's political unity weakened. Hindu kings or political leaders. Even Samudragupta, probably from 330 to 381 AD, and Chandragupta Vikramaditya's famous rulers from 381 to 413 AD could not liberate the whole subcontinent. Emperor Harshavardhana II Pulakeshi was able to establish his dominion over the entire Deccan Plateau but after the death of these two great emperors the political unity of India was shattered and their empire disintegrated due to lack of deserving heirs and many small independent states emerged in India. Afghanistan, Kashmir, Delhi, Ajmer, Indus, Gujarat, Nepal, Assam, Bengal. As the State Granthi states each state was independent and sovereign and therefore did not have a central power.


ADMINISTRATIVE STATEMENT:

Foundation of Muslim Rule in India

On the eve of the Arab conquest, the monarchy gained popularity in India. At that time, the republican system of the ancient Buddhist era was abolished and the hereditary king appointment system was introduced. In the monarchical system, the king was omnipotent, as the king of God, the king made laws, administered justice, administered justice, and served as chief of staff. In Mukti and in South India, the provinces were also known as Mandal State and Desh.

Economic Status

Foundation of Muslim Rule in India

Huge Natural Resources Aishwarya India has been world-famous since ancient times. According to the ancient economist Kautilya, the main sources of state resources were: The agricultural nation had to pay 100% of its produce to one-sixth of the state as tax. According to his account of the economic prosperity of India during the Gupta period, the people of Magadha were prosperous and sound and they had a tendency to do good deeds. Arabian Peninsula off the coast of Madras and along the Bay of Bengal The second was that India was economically prosperous but there was extreme inequality in the distribution of wealth and system of living. The working people, including the peasants, worked hard to earn a living, and the benefits of their labor were enjoyed by the elite who lived a very luxurious life.


Social Status

Foundation of Muslim Rule in India

Contemporary documents, inscriptions, and daily and more tourist accounts give an idea of ​​the social life of India in the run-up to the conquest. In the early 8th century Kshatriya Vaishyas and Shudras were divided into four castes. Of the four castes, the Brahmin Kshatriyas were the most influential in society Researcher and professor Mohammad Enamul Haque said that the class division policy among the Hindus was very detrimental to the lower class people and the Vedas, Gita reading, and even poetry of the Shudras were done. There was no right to listen. There were various hateful customs and superstitions prevalent in the society The traditional democratic inhuman Aryan call-up was considered a work of religious virtue. Greek accounts show that women had a status in Maurya society and were privileged for literary philosophy. Al-Biruni According to her, at that time girls, were given liberal moral education and had the opportunity to participate in governance and social activities, but this was probably not the overall picture of the society.

RELIGIOUS STATUS

RELIGIOUS STATUS

There were three major religions in pre-Muslim India, Jain Buddhism, and Hinduism. Kindness and reincarnation Buddhism flourished in India during the reign of Maurya Emperor Ashoka, but Buddhism began to decline during the Gupta period and the renaissance of Hinduism began. The main feature of Hinduism was the caste system. Despite being the mainstay of Hindu society, drug addicts and oppressed people had no right to listen to their scriptures. Dinesh Chandra Sen Br Mentioned the oppressive role of the Brahmins


Cultural Status

Foundation of Muslim Rule in India


In Muslim India, initiation education and culture flourished India. Buddhist Hindu rule Education spread all over the country. Apart from Dharmashastra and Veda Shastra, these colleges were established for teaching philosophy, astronomy, and medical sciences.

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