Contribution of Sumerian civilization in science and technology
Painting: Painting developed in ancient Egypt to decorate the walls of temples and mausoleums. However, the pattern can be seen on the mummy and her coffin. Early paintings were mainly religious. Gradually. The painting reflects social life and natural subjects. Mural Painting or Fresco can be seen in the temple of Thebes, built during the 18th Dynasty. In these paintings, various scenes of social life are observed along with the scenes of court and harem. The best painting in Egypt was started by Pharaoh Ikhnaton and his. In the next period. From that time on, painters used geometric designs to draw natural objects. Using colors like black, yellow, red, gray, blue, etc., Egyptian painters used sea waves, blooming flowers, cultivating farmers' land, harvesting, oiling, threshing, weaving cloth, carpenter, blacksmith, potter, breadwinner, driver, He used to draw pictures of sailors, scribes, magicians, sportsmen, dancers, etc. They are forest views While drawing, he was able to draw pictures of chickens, cows, goats, sheep, dogs, cats, horses, donkeys, rabbits, tigers, giraffes, etc.
Use of Paper: In ancient civilization, the Egyptians made paper from a type of reed called papyrus. Wrote. One such paper is made by them (135 feet or 41 meters long and 18 inches or 0.43 meters wide). Preserved in the British Museum. They also made pen and ink dots for writing on that paper. Contributions to other small industries: The ancient Egyptians were also able to contribute to the pottery, gold, glass, and weaving industries. Also they. Ravin made colored pottery, engraved gold ornaments, carved furniture, fine linen cloth, ivory utensils, musical instruments, and toys. Although coins were not in circulation at that time, copper and army rings were used as coins. Used. They built ships for trade and commerce. In conclusion, the Egyptians were able to make outstanding contributions in various fields in ancient times. Ralph and Bern are right. Single
1. Make a list of the names of the ancient Egyptian gods.
2. Draw a map to show where Egyptian civilization developed on the banks of a river.
3. Make a chart of the role of the ancient Egyptians in certain areas of science.
4. Introduce the political history and administrative system of the ancient Egyptians.
The Sumerian Civilization
modern-day Iraq and its environs, in the fertile lands between the Tigris (Tigris) and the Euphrates (Euphrates River), some urban civilizations have sprung up over time. The middle land (Mesobetween, Potamosriver). According to the shape of the crescent, the geologist Breasted (Breasted) named this fertile region Fertile Crescent. The first is based on principles and religion, the second is based on jurisprudence. Sumerian Society, Politics, and
Economy: The pioneers of Mesopotamian civilization, the Osmetic Sumerians, settled on the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers between 5000 and 4000 BC. Nothing can be said with certainty about the original home of the Sumerians. However, they arrived in Mesopotamia from a corner of Central Asia. Sumerian civilization developed around a few cities. Apart from the capital Ur, Uruk, Larsa, Irudu, Kish, and Lagos are some of the cities. Although the city-state organization or confederation was formed, it was weak and weak. In Sumerian civilization, the head of the religion and the head of the city-state were called Patesi. He was the chief priest, chief of the army, and controller of the irrigation system. The Sumerian economy was largely based on agriculture. They were skilled farmers. By inventing irrigation systems, using wooden plows, metal sickles, weeders, they developed advanced farming methods. The floodwaters of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers have yielded promising crops in the silty fertile soil. The second economic source of the Sumerians was trade. There were two types of trade, domestic and foreign. They traded with Palestine, the Mediterranean, Phenicia, the Aegean Islands, India, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Business transactions are carried out by army and silver ingot. Apart from agriculture and trade, the Sumerians were engaged in occupational occupations such as building houses, making earthen furniture and boats. The ancient Sumerians were divided. The upper classes consisted of priests, aristocrats, merchants, industrialists, and high-ranking government officials. The middle class consisted of physicians and small traders. In the lower classes were slaves, landlords, and ordinary workers.
The Sumerians Contributions to Civilization
According to the religions of other ancient civilizations, the Sumerians were affected by natural disasters, including floods, droughts, famines, and droughts. Would have been terrified. So they worshiped many gods and goddesses to satisfy the various forces of nature. They had faith. The influence of gods and goddesses on people's personal lives is direct. Among the gods and goddesses is the sun god Shamsh, rain, and storm. Enli, the goddess of water, Inanna, the goddess of love and fertility, Nergal, the god of plague. Particularly noteworthy. Their main temple built in layers is called Ziggurat. The Sumerians believed in secularism; They did not believe in the Hereafter. So maybe there are no traces of mummies in Sumer. Bodies can be buried without coffins. Law: The Sumerians also made significant contributions to law-making. Emperor Dungi is known as the maker of Sumerian law. He assembled the Sumerian nation under the title "King of the four regions of the earth" and was the first to legislate by collecting local customary laws. | Formulate the Code. The four main features of Sumerian law are the notable preventive law (eye for eye, tooth for tooth), legal aid for private enterprise, the unequal justice system, and the distinction between intentional and unintentional misconduct. Assyrian, Chaldean, and Hebrew laws are based on Sumerian law. Even the famous law of Hammurabi (Code of Hammurabi) is probably an improved and modified version of the Dungi law.
Writing system: Sumerian in the history of human civilization. The invention of the writing system is a memorable event. Initially, the writing system was pictorial, but later a new writing style was invented by adding different styles to make it dynamic, which is cuneiform. The Bengali word for the Latin Cuneus or English Wedge is Keelan. The Sumerians used to draw angular lines on clay slates with reed pens. The images were scratched; Looks a lot like V's. This script is basically a letter-based alphabet. This script is written from left to right. There are more than 500 cuneiform symbols found in the Sumerian language.
Literature: It is known from various sources that Sumerian literature was based on mythology. The story revolves around the relationship of gods and goddesses with ancient kings. Religious thought was also included here. Famous among these literary works were epics related to the Great Flood and creationism. The most famous of the early Sumerian rulers was King Gilgamesh of Uruk; Who controlled power around 2600 BC. He is still remembered for his fictional adventures in Gilgamesh's epics. Common in his name
The Gilgamesh epic is the first epic in history
Inspired by later Roman and Greek legends and biblical stories, a devastating flood in the Arctic region is used as the theme of this epic poem. Was and was later re-used in the story of Noah's Old Testament. However, due to the lack of decoding, a large part of Sumerian literature is still unknown.
Art: The easy availability of stone in the Sumerian region. Was not. That is why more brick installations have been built in the dry season. Among these were houses, temples, and monuments. They are built on the high ground considering the flood and the attack of an external enemy. The ziggurat of the temple was the main architectural masterpiece. Due to the scarcity of stones, they used to make small sculptures instead of large ones. Lovely with army-silver and precious stones
To make weapons by beating jewelry and copper They were perfect. The Sumerians were the first Kumaras
Discovers shelves. The use of the arch, dome, and vault roofs in their palaces can be noticed.
Science: The development of science in ancient Sumer was mainly centered on religion. To schedule religious festivals. The Sumerians invented astronomy. Diary discovery is their main contribution. They invented watches and lunar calendars based on the rotation of the moon. The minute, hour, day, week, month, year calculations introduced by them are now prevalent in the world.
Babylonian Civilization The Babylonian civilization is one of the most memorable civilizations in the history of the world today. The Babylonians were divided into many small city-states. Historians have come to the conclusion that these small city-states were independent. Those who ruled in these small city-states were called kings or lords. Modern researchers are also of the opinion that the city-states, which are divided into smaller parts, are engaged in wars with the neighboring city-states in order to increase their political dominance.
The earliest stage of the ancient Babylonian civilization was when it was divided into small city-states, just then the first king named Sargon. During his reign, a united Babylonian state was established. The most notable ruler in the history of the Babylonian nation was Hamburabi (2123-2071 BC). Hammurabi was not only the best ruler of the ancient Babylonian Empire but also one of the greatest kings of the ancient world. He established himself as a skilled ruler by winning wars and expanding empires during his reign. He replied.
Babylon gave a new name to the whole valley, which was divided into two areas, Akkad and the Arctic to the south. The contribution of the Babylonians to civilization. Babylonian's Contributions to Civilization Agriculture: The ancient Babylonian nation made significant contributions to the development of agrarian civilization. He dug canals to irrigate crops and learned to build dams to protect crops from floods. Babylonian civilization also made progress in industry and commerce. The merchants of Babylon were the first to take the help of the exchange system in the business. They invented specific weights and measures, methods of storing information. The weights and measures used by the ancient Babylonians were also adopted by the Laekaras of other nearby civilizations. Trade and commerce: The ancient Babylonian civilization also made progress in industry and commerce. Trade, commerce, banking, and industry were under the control of the government. It was customary to document for partnership management. They traded through an exchange. They invented precise methods of accounting and introduced specific weights and measures, exporting grain, oil, dates, earthenware, leather, etc., and importing gold, silver, lead, salt, etc. Religion: The ancient Babylonian people worshiped gods and goddesses. They worshiped the gods of nature, the local city gods, and many other small deities. Their main deity was ‘Marduk’ and ‘Ishtar’ was the goddess of love. The Babylonian nation believed in the power of spirits, especially spirit power. They could make predictions by seeing the change of planets and stars.
The writing system and the Babylonians had a specific writing system. Their writing style is called 'cuneiform'. Of. This is the name given to the writing system for the combination of alphabetical symbols. Babylonian writers for writing. Used four hundred to five hundred letters or symbols. They are now preserved in the British Museum.
Education: French archaeologists excavated an ancient Babylonian school of 55 square feet in 1894. Rescued the wreckage. In this school, it is difficult to memorize about 350 marks with different types of drawings with soft clay.
Medicine: The Babylonians also excelled in medicine. They introduce at least 550 types of drugs. Astronomy: The ancient Babylonians had a thorough knowledge of the heavens. They divided the zodiac into twelve parts and named the constellations. They could predict solar and lunar eclipses and invent solar and water clocks. Their calendars were improved. They counted years in 12 months, months in 4 weeks, days in 12 hours, and hours in 60 minutes.
Mathematics: The Babylonians were able to make a fundamental contribution to mathematics. They invented decimal systems, length, width, energy measurement, and weight systems. Hammurabi Law: The most notable aspect of the Babylonian nation in the history of civilization was the law enacted by the Babylonian king Hammurabi, better known to modern historians as the Code of Hammurabi. Notable aspects of the law enacted by King Hammurabi are: 3 False accusations and testimony are considered as major offenses under the Hammurabi Act. If a person fails to prove a charge of murder against someone, the accuser will be sentenced to death. False
Such a provision is added in the case of witnesses. The law says that if a robber is caught in a corner while committing robbery, he will be sentenced to death. If the robber is not caught
However, the provincial government will be obliged to pay all the compensation to the person affected by the robbery. If the responsible person neglects the responsibilities assigned by the government, he will be sentenced to death. In the case of irrigation, the law of Hammurabi states that if a person digs a trench, neglects the irrigation system and its
As a result, the land in the surrounding corner is damaged, but the person will be obliged to pay all the damages.
Debt and interest rates will be fixed by the government through law
May loans and interest rates were set by the government. If the person in the corner is in addition to the fixed interest. - would have recovered, but his loaned grain or property would have been confiscated. ⇒ The Hammurabi Act also introduced a provision to register marriages.
The provision of registering marriages was also introduced and it was made subject to strict laws. In addition to the above, killing or injuring
In addition to the provisions relating to murder or injury law, land law, doctor's fees, and wrongful treatment (Krant law, building law, labor law), the Hammurabi law.
Although good regulations were added, the classification law was the most negative aspect of the law.
The law of Hammurabi was not above criticism for introducing different types of provisions for this. Assyrian civilization
Assyrian Civilization Assyrian civilization and culture developed from a combination of Babylonian civilization. Because Babylon has long been part of Assyria. However, even if borrowed, Assyrian civilization was able to spread to the civilized world. Assyrians. True, other civilizations have imitated, but in some cases, such as sculpture, architecture, and painting, they have been able to make fundamental contributions. An Assyrian king named Sennacherib was very famous as a builder. It is known. He rebuilt Nineveh, the capital of Assyria. The well-decorated capital became much brighter in the sun. Apart from Sennacherib, a famous emperor named Asurbanipal also ruled the Assyrians. Asurbanipal established a huge library by collecting many valuable and rare books of antiquity. Among the Assyrians, this library was the source of knowledge.
Condition: Slavery was common in Assyrian society. However, this
The curtain system was also followed.
Was contained. But the status of slaves and women in the Assyrian society of other civilizations: Assyrians
The Assyrian slaves were in a fairly good position because the price was not valued. Non |
He used to treat these seas according to the opinion of a slave. Avivo. Husbands could take wives and divorce them at will. Assyrian women were seen participating in politics. Many of the A3 elite women are due to politics
Many of the Radars also became provincial governors due to politics.
They could be seen taking part in politics. Some of the elite women are veiled c
Assyrians are the Romans of Asia
The Assyrians are called Romans of Asia. The Assyrians, who had won many great battles, became the rulers of a vast empire according to the Romans. It is reasonable to call them Raman of Asia for such expertise in warfare. Moreover, many of the activities of the Assyrians are similar to those of the Romans. For example, the Romans occupied Greece and embraced their civilization and culture, just as the Assyrians conquered Babylon and adopted their civilization and culture. The Assyrians not only assimilated the culture of the Babylonians but also developed the assimilated culture and civilization into a vast empire.
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