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Brief Political History of the Raemans

Brief Political History of the Romans

Brief Political History of the Romans

At first, the monarchy was established in Raman. That is the era of monarchy
Tercunius primus, Cervius Tullius and Tercunius. In 510 BC, it was decided to establish a republic instead of a monarchy in Ram; The Romans were divided into two groups, the Patricians and the Plebians. The Patricians were more powerful. At this time the General Assembly and the Senate were established. But the Patrician-Plebian. Democracy did not last long in the conflict. Julius Caesar established dictatorship and dictatorship in 47 BC. . Although he was a talented politician, he was killed by a rival enemy. Then Augustus Caesar started the ‘Augustan era’ in the history of Raman. He ruled for a long 44 years from 31 BC to 14 AD. Under his patronage, the extreme development of the Raman civilization was achieved. After the Augustan era, the foundations of the Roman Empire weakened; Foreign aggression increased. Finally, in 47 AD, the Roman Empire finally collapsed.

Eastern Roman Empire Byzantine Empire

Eastern Roman Empire Byzantine Empire

J / Byzantine Empire. The East Roman Empire is an integral part of the Roman civilization
Pajya. Ancient Greek civilizations include the west coast of the Black Sea, both coastal areas of the Marble and Bosphorus Straits, Asia Minor, modern Syria, Turkey, etc.
Is included. In this way, the Roman Empire became a huge empire. So Raman Samas II (reign: 324-338 AD) is an ancient myth preserved as his summer resort.
MK (Istanbul, one of the cities in modern Turkey and located on two continents). Therefore, on May 11, 330 AD, he established the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in Byzantium. The capital of Byzantium was named Constantinople after him. Since then the Roman Empire has gained two names, East and West. Then, in 47 AD, when the West Roman Empire fell, the East Roman or Byzantine. The empire shines in its glory. Then the rulers of the Byzantine Empire went through various ups and downs. Ram was able to recapture West Asia, North Africa, and eastern Spain. At the beginning of the seventh century. With the rise and rise of Hejaz Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, the Byzantines began to lose out to Muslim powers in their Afro-Asian states. So the history of the Byzantine Empire is related to the political history of Islam. However, the fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453, by Muhammad bin Fateh II, Sultan of the Ottoman Turkish Empire, led to the fall of the East Roman and Byzantine Empires. Byzantine. Notable rulers of the empire
M 330 AD;
1. Sat Constantine (reign of Ram Bajdhani: 19th September 324-222 May 330 9th reign: Constantinople reign: 330-338 AD). 

2. Emperor Leo (reign: 458-484 AD)
Schratz I Justinian (reigned: 1st August, 526-14th November, 575 AD). tv, Sr. Heraclius (reign: 5th October 610-11th February, 741 AD)


3. It should be noted that Muhammad (pbuh) (reign: 622-632 AD), caliph Hazrat Abu Bakr (r.d.)(reign: 632-634)AD), 

4. Hazrat Omar (R.) (reign: 634-644 AD)]. 

5. Constantine (reign: 11th February, 841-26th May, 741 AD)


6. Constantine II:
(reign: September 641-15th September, 6 AD). vii. Constantine IV (reign: 7-85 AD) 

7. [at this time Umayyad Caliph Muawiyah
AD) and Yazid (reign: 70-83 AD) directly invaded the Byzantine Empire.] 

8. Justinian II (reign: August, 605 December - 611 AD). 

9. Constantine VI (reign: 7th September 70th August 798 AD)
Irene of Athens (reign: August 696-31 October 702) [of the Abbasid Caliph Harun-ur-Rashid.
(Reign: 6-709 AD) with the conflict of this Roman empress 

10. First Niphoros: Nikephoros I (reign: October 31, 602-26 July, 611 AD)

11. Basil II (reign: 97-1025 AD)  

12. Alexius (reign: 1061-1116 AD) (Note that the Crusades began in 1095 AD during Alexius's reign.] Xiv. 

13. Constantine (reign: 1449-1453 AD).

The Romans Contributions to Civilization Religion
Greek influence on the Romans is observed in religious matters. Assimilation of many Greek religious rites. Has done. Especially paganism. According to the Greeks, they also worshiped many gods and goddesses. Religion is the ancient Ramana's. Used in everything. In the house-outside, in work, in friendship-enmity, in eating-sleeping, in movement, in business-trade. Goddesses were everywhere in the fields. The name of the house god of the Romans is 'Genus', the name of the god of fire is 'Vesta'. The name of the god of the sky is' Jupiter ', the goddess of love is Venus', the name of the god of crops is' Saturn', the god of the sea. Neptune ', the goddess of cultivation' Minerva 'etc. Raman scholar Marcus Treretis Varro (11626 BC) mentions the names of 20,000 Raman deities. Gradually the Roman religion moved from the individual and the home to the state level. That is why the priest was appointed by the state. The temple was built under the patronage of the state. So the priests in the society pass the special class and exert influence. Before Christianity gained state status and recognition, Roman civilization was polytheism, mysticism, and mysticism. Rajdharma etc. existed. In the first century, Jesus (known to Muslims as Jesus, son of the Blessed Virgin Mary) was born in Bethlehem, five miles south of Jerusalem, in the Kurdish kingdom of Judea (now Palestine or Palestine) in the Roman Empire. From 30 AD he preached monotheistic Christianity. Gradually Jesus and his followers grew; As a result, the Roman emperors became angry and killed Jesus by crucifying him and torturing his followers, including removing them from the army. However, it further expanded and strengthened Christianity. Then Emperor Constantine (324-336 AD) adopted a liberal and tolerant policy towards Christianity. He recognized Christianity as the legal religion by the Edict of Milan. He then converted to Christianity. When Christianity continued unabated, Emperor Theodosius I (January 11, 395 AD - January 16, 395 AD) declared Christianity to be the state religion, and Jesus became the only legal religion of Ram. This led to the emergence and development of new church-based architecture in the Roman Empire; Which later influenced Muslim architecture as well. Not only that, according to the Roman Empire, the last religion of the Romans, Christianity, was also divided due to sin. Namely- Ram-centric. | Catholic Christians and Constantinople-centric Protestant Christians.


Philosophy:

Brief Political History of the Raemans

Raman philosophy originates based on Greek philosophy. The philosopher Lucretius was a proponent of Vaghism. Stoicism was Ram's most popular philosophical doctrine. The three philosophers have played a special role in establishing this doctrine. They are the rich Raman ‘Sinek’, the slave Raman ‘Epicatus’, and the Raman emperor. ‘Marcus Aurelius’. The essence of this doctrine is that happiness can be achieved only by establishing an orderly and peaceful society and being truthful. Alphabet and spelling: The Raemans first introduced the Latin alphabet based on the Greek alphabet. The writing system was introduced in Ram at the beginning of the 6th century BC. Their writing style is used to make laws and agreements. Raman inscriptions are found on the walls of their various tombs.


Literature


In the Augustan period, Raman reached the pinnacle of literary excellence. Protas and Terrence are the ones who have made a special contribution to his literary works.
Toss was a pioneer in composing comedy. Heras and Callas were famous as lyric poets. The epic 'Aeneid' by the famous poet Virgil (Vergil, 80-19 BC) is now world-famous. 


History


The Romans have also made significant contributions to the writing of history. In this case whose name. Most noteworthy; He is named Titus Livius (born and died: approximately 74 or 59 BC - approximately 12 or 16 AD) + Livy. The historian of Italian descent, Raman, wrote the famous history book 'History of Rome' (Latin name 'Ab Urbe Condita'). This book gives a detailed account of the history and glorious achievements of Ram. However, the book failed to present an objective and scientific point of view as Livy wrote his history with the help of myths and legends. Another important historian of the Roman civilization was Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus. The Roman historian of Greek descent is known as Park. He was born in 48 AD and died in 120 AD. He is the author of Biographical History. In his book Lives of the Roman Emperors and The Parallel Liues, biographies of Roman and Greek heroes are recorded. Has done. Tacitus also became famous for his praise of the German nation and the reason for the fall of the Romans in his famous book 'Germania'.

The Egyptians' Contributions to Ancient Civilization

Architecture and Sculpture

 

Architecture and Sculpture

The Ramana's started the classical era in architecture. Urbanization in the Roman civilization. And as a result of the development of Christianity, there are many residential, public welfare, religious and non-religious under the patronage of the ruling class. Architecture has been established. Many examples of Roman architecture still bear the history of the Roman emperors' heroism, taste, economic prosperity, and creative work. However, in the case of the enrichment of the Raman architecture. In some respects, the architecture of the ancient Greek civilization is indebted. Roman architecture is a combination of Greek architectural elements and the original Roman architectural elements. The Colosseum is the most famous and famous of Roman architecture. Emperor Vespasian (reign: 69-69 AD) began construction on the amazing A (now. Raman Coliseum one of the Seven Wonders) building, known as the Flavian Amphitheater, in 60 AD, and his son, Emperor Titus, completed it in 60 AD. With a capacity of 5,600 spectators, it was the largest theater of the Romans. However, there is an exhibition of competition for the heroism of the gladiators. He used to enjoy leaving criminals or prisoners in front of wild animals. Emperor Hadrian's (Hadrian: 116-136 AD) is a unique 142-foot-tall pantheon (Pantheon, built: 116-125 AD). This temple is the oldest temple in the world with a diameter of 140 feet. Emperor Dictation (Lifespan: 244-313 AD) 305 for his retirement. Built an impeccable residential building in AD; Which still survives as 'Dioclotion's Palace'. The 180-foot-high and 902-foot-long Pont du Guard is a two-story bridge built by the Romans in the first century. The 'Baalbek Temple' was built at Balbek, Lebanon, between 150 and 250 AD. The Library of Celsus in Anatolia, Turkey, bears the imprint of Roman architecture on the science of knowledge. The Eastern Roman Empire. It is a combination of Greek, Roman, and Persian architectural styles.
Emperor Constantine (reign: 314 the Holy Sepulcher) (Fatimid Khali Crusade). Syrian architecture. Fresco etc. murals
Fake, 324-338 AD) Built-in 335 AD, the Holy Church of Christians' Church of!
Crusade due to the destruction of the church by Temi Khalifa Al-Hakim in 1009 AD. Saint Sophia Giza in Syria is another aesthetic Giza of the Roman era. Two types of features are observed in the Roman architecture of the Nar Palmira Desert:
(i) Greek. =Features and 
(ii) Greek, Roman, and Sassanid or Persian features. But above all. Basic addition. The Romans invented some basic elements in architecture. For example- Work 1) Khilansari (Aisle and Bay), Double Dome, Octagon shaped topography, etc.
The Romans were also skilled in decoration. In the decoration of the building, they are Mosaic, Maral. (Eresco) etc. invented murals. Moreover in the development of Derrick, Ionic, Corinthian pillars. There are contributions. The main elements of the Raman building are rectangular stones, lime-skin. Raman architecture. They have had a direct impact on Muslim architecture in a considerable period. Damascus Mosque, Kubbatus Sakhra, Kusayer we per. The influence of Roman architecture can be seen in Muslim architecture. The Items also have the contribution of the Romans. However, Greek influence is greatest in this industry. Of Kings and queens and important personalities

And the Ramana's have been credited with building Pornography. Through sculptural art, the costumes, tastes, and mentality of the Romans have become clear. By focusing more on knowledge, politics, military policy, and jurisprudence, the Romans could not make fundamental progress in the field of science. However, technology and engineering have contributed to the knowledge. Pliny the Elder was one of the few idealistic scientists. He wrote a number of scientific encyclopedias called 'Natural History. Physician Celsus has written a book on medicine. It speaks of surgery. Some Hellenistic scientists living in Italy have perfected Ram's science. Among them are the medical scientist Galen and the astronomer Ptolemy. (Ptolemy). Lucretius is a renowned scientist in the natural sciences. Lightning, steam, There are descriptions of volcanoes, waterfalls, etc. Scientist Seneca influenced the Middle Ages by analyzing the natural world and collecting theories about Ala. Verbal, Gaius Plinius Secundus, and Seneca were famous physicists

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