The Concept of Programming

The Concept of Programming

The Concept of Programming

The computer has a central processing unit or Central Processing Unit (CPU) for short. The microprocessor we currently know has one or more CPUs. The job of this CPU is to do various calculations.

The calculations that are done in the microprocessor include various operations including jag-bag-guna-bag. Computer memory is required to store the data on which these operations are performed. At the end of the operation, the results of the operation are also stored in this computer memory. Computer memory can generally be divided into two parts: temporary and permanent. In English, it is called volatile and non-volatile. Memory that holds data even after the computer is turned off is called non-volatile memory. Such as hard disk, ROM, DVD, USB drive. And the memory data that is lost when the computer is turned off (in some cases the program is closed) is called temporary memory. For example RAM. Computer programs use temporary memory when working with data. Permanent memory is not used as it is quite slow.

But even in the processor of the computer, there is memory, the closest to the processor is the register, and then there is cache memory. The size of the cache memory is larger than the register, which means it can hold more data, but the speed is a little less. Register and cache are added between memory processors. Then comes. RAM. RAM is connected to the motherboard outside the processor. The size of the RAM is quite large compared to the cache, but the speed is low. The most expensive in terms of cost is register memory, then cache memory. RAM is much cheaper than them. After RAM comes virtual memory. When there is no space in RAM, it allows a part of the hard disk to be used as computer operating system memory. It is definitely much slower than RAM.


The Language of Programming

The Concept of Programming

He has to give special instructions to work in any corner with the computer. The computer's processor can only execute a specific set of commands, called instruction sets. But programmers don't usually write programs in that language, but hundreds of programming languages ​​are used to create programs. Some of the most important programming languages ​​invented in different decades are programming languages. Year of Discovery Fortran | 1954-57 Lisp 1956-59 Cobol 1959-60 Basic 1964 Pascal. 1970 | C 1972 C ++ 1983 Perl 1987 Python. 1989 Name of programming language Year of Discovery Visual Basic | 1991 | PHP. 1995 Java 1995 JavaScript. 1995 * T * T (Scala) 2003 Go Go 2009 Rust 2010 Kotlin 2011


Machine Language

The Concept of Programming

He has to give special instructions to work in any corner with the computer. The computer's processor can only execute a specific set of commands, called instruction sets. But programmers don't usually write programs in that language, but hundreds of programming languages ​​are used to create programs.

Some important programming languages ​​invented over the decades

Name of the programming language. Year of Discovery Fortran | 1954-57 Lisp

1956-59 Cobol

1959-60 Basic

1964 Pascal.

1970 | C

1972 C ++

1983 Pearl

1987 Python.

1989

Name of the programming language Year of Discovery Visual Basic | 1991 | PHP.

1995 Java

1995 Javascript.

1995 * T * T (Scala)

2003 Go

2009 Rust

2010 Kotlin


Matter. Because the code contains only 0 and 1. So it is impossible for people to make big programs in this language. To make computer programming easier, various processor manufacturers set up instructions with their processors. The instruction set provides some simple instructions that can be used to instruct the processor or create the program. Writing a program using an instruction set is relatively easier than simply using 0 and 1.

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Assembly Language

The Concept of Programming

Assembly language is created after machine language to make programming easier for programmers. It is a programming language. It is easier for programmers to read and write programs in this language than in machine language. Computer processors cannot run programs made directly with assembly language. The code written in the assembly language must first be converted to machine code, then the processor can execute it. The program that converts code written in assembly language into machine code is called an assembler.


Mid-Level Language

The language between assembly language and higher-level language is called intermediate language. This creates a bridge between computer hardware and programming. C language is an excellent example of a medium-level language because it allows you to program your system according to your operating system and also to create an application software for everyday use.


High-Level Language

Machine language and assembly language is low-level programming language. Although assembly language has made it easier for programmers to write programs than before, writing large programs in this language is much more difficult and time-consuming. When people start using programming to solve different kinds of problems, they need a kind of programming language, in which it will be much easier for people to read and write programs. A high-level programming language was created then. Cobol. The discovery of programming languages ​​like Fortran, C, etc. changed the programming language a lot. Using these languages, various problems could be solved by writing programs much faster than before. So these languages ​​are called high-level programming languages. However, over time, new programming languages ​​have emerged, which have made programming languages ​​easier, and programs designed using SAR language easier. Such as - C ++ Plus (C ++), Java, C Sharp (C #), PHP, Python, etc. These are currently considered high-level programming languages.


C:

The Concept of Programming


C is a commonly used, very popular programming language. The language was created in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs. It is said that if you know this language, it is very easy to learn any other language on the computer. The C language can be used to create everything from operating systems to complex database management programs, Internet browsers, or interpreters. It is an excellent structured programming language, where a complex program can be created by combining six parts.


C ++ Plus (C ++):

The Concept of Programming

Class is an important concept in the world of programming. Something that has similar features is called a class. The C ++ language is introduced by adding classes to the C programming language and then adding some new features to the array. The language was invented in 1980 by Bjarne Stroustrup, a Bell Lab worker. One of the basic principles of this language is to give a programmer the freedom to program in his own way. 

Visual Basic

The Concept of Programming


In 1991, Microsoft introduced Visual Basic language for programming on their Windows operating system. It gained widespread popularity as soon as it reached a relatively stable level. It was equally popular with programmers and general users because of its ease of programming and the convenience of running the program without having to re-compile when the program was modified.

Java

The Concept of Programming


In 1991, Sun Microsystems introduced the Java programming language. It is currently a popular language. One of its main features is that if it is compiled on one platform, it can be used directly on any other platform using Java (WORA: Write Once, Run Anywhere). It became very popular with important web browsers due to its ability to launch Java applets inside web pages. 

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Algol:

The Concept of Programming

ALGOL (Algorithmic Language) programming language was born in 1958 in a joint effort of several computer scientists from Europe and America. It was a much more futuristic and modern programming language than any other programming language of the time. Even in the syntax of modern programming languages, the imprint of different languages ​​can be noticed. Although algal is widely used in science and research, it has not been well known in the business world due to its lack of simple input and output technology. 

Fortran

The Concept of Programming

In 1957, the IBM company invented an answer language called Formula Translation for use in science and technology. Scientists and researchers embraced the language because it was specialized in mathematics. At one time almost all scientific research in the world used this language alone. This language may survive to be used in large simulations as it may sound incredible but can calculate very quickly. (Quickly another language close to it is C ++) Fortran's latest in 2018The version has been released. Fortran has been used by scientists to solve many major mathematical problems in physics and chemistry. 

Python

The Concept of Programming

Guido van Rossum invented Python in 1991. It is currently one of the most popular languages ​​and in 2018 it is the largest programming language by IEEE. Recognized as Python features a very simple and readable syntax. It runs on a variety of platforms and is used to build cloud-based web applications, data analysis, and machine learning applications.


Efforts continue to be made to make 4th


Generation Language (4GL)

programming is easier for humans, resulting in programming languages ​​that are somewhat closer to human languages. These programming languages ​​are called fourth-generation languages ​​or 4GL. The SQL language shown in the Database chapter is the 4GL language. In addition, when a graphical interface is used in a variety of software tools, something can be done by pressing a menu or a button, behind which the fourth generation language is considered to have contributed.


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